Correlational findings

Study Wessman & Ricks (1966): study US 1957 /1

Male college students, followed 3 years, Harvard University, USA, 1957-60
N = 17
Non Response:
37%: 9 dropouts, incomplete; about the same happiness distribution.
Multiple methods
Mood diary kept 30 days and repeated interviews and tests during three years.


Authors's label
Impulse expression vs self-restraint
Our Classification
Repeated closed question on 'how expes- sive and impulsive or internally res- traind and controlled you felt', rated on a 10-point scale:

10. Wild and complete abandon. No im-
    pulse denied.
9. Exhilarating sense of release. Say     whatever I feel, and do just as I
8. Quick to act on every immediiate
7. Allowing my impulses and desires a
    pretty free rein.
6. Moderate acceptance and expression
    of my own needs and desires.
5. Keep a check on most whims and im-
4. On the straight and narrow path.
    Keeping myself within strong bounds
3. Obeying rigorous standards. Strict
    with myself.
2. Refuse to permit the slightest     self-indulgence or impulsive action
1. Complete renunciation of all desi-
    res. Needs and impulses totally

Scale scored each night for highest, lowest and average experience of the day.
(Wessman & Ricks Impulse Expression vs Self-Restraint Scale).

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-a r = + p < .05 The means of the lowest, average and highest daily scores were correlated with the mean daily average score on the Elation-Depression Scale (AFF  3.1) during 6 weeks.

Daily highest   : r = +.69 (05)
Daily average   : r = +.62 (05)
Daily lowest    : r = +.05 (ns)