Study Wessman & Ricks (1966): study US 1957 /1
- Male college students, followed 3 years, Harvard University, USA, 1957-60
- N = 17
- Non Response
- 37%: 9 dropouts, incomplete; about the same happiness distribution.
Multiple assesment methods
Mood diary kept 30 days and repeated interviews and tests during three years.
- Authors's Label
- Companionship vs being isolated
- Our Classification
- Repeated closed question on 'the extent to which you felt emotionally accepted by, or isolated from other people', ra- ted on a 10-point scale:
10. Complete participation in warm, in-
9. Enjoy the warmth of close compan-
8. Thoroughly and genuineley liked.
7. Feel accepted and like.
6. More or less accepted.
5. Feel a little bit left out.
4. Feel somewhat neglected and lonely.
3. Very lonely. No one seems to care
2. Tremendously lonely. Friendless and
1. Completely isolated and forsaken.
Abandoned. Ache with loneliness.
Scale scored each night for highest, lowest and average experience of the day.
(Wessman & Ricks Companionship vs Being Isolated Scale).
Observed Relation with Happiness
Daily highest : r = +.38 (ns)
Daily average : r = +.43 (ns)
Daily lowest : r = +.08 (ns)