Correlational findings

Study Holahan et al. (1999): study US 1960

Gifted (IQ>135) followed unto old age, USA, 1960-1992
N = 383
Non Response:
Interview: face-to-face
Repeated, with questionnaires


Authors's label
Lived up to ability
Our Classification
  • INTELLIGENCE Attitudes to own intelligence
  • LIFE APPRAISALS: OTHER THAN HAPPINESS Life-appraisal career Earlier life-appraisals
  • LIFE GOALS Realization of lifegoals Perceived realization of specific life-goals Realization of educational goals
  • SELF-IMAGE Self-image career Earlier self-image
Self-appraisal of having lived up to abilities.
 Participants were asked "On the whole, how well do you think you have lived up to your intellectual abilities?" Responses were coded in two categories
 1: did not live-up
 2: lived-up
 Assessed at T1 (1960)

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks M-PL-h-sq-v-5-b DM = + T1 lived up by T2 happiness
 Men   1.M=3.71 SD=0.89
       2.M=4.15 SD=0.85
 Women 1.M=3.76 SD=1.08
 In univariate analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs) there was a significant lived-up effect:
 F(1,332)= 13.85, MSE=.82 p<0.001
       2.M=4.19 SD=0.92
M-AC-h-mq-v-8-a DM = + T1 lived up by T2 happiness
 In univariate analyses of covariance(ANCOVAs) there was a significant lived-up effect:
 F(1,310)=10,65, MSE=.84, p<.05
O-SLW-c-sq-n-9-a DM = + T1 lived up by T3 happiness
 Univariate analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs) was significant for lived-up:
 F(1,355)=10.71, MSE=2,25, p<.001
 LISREL analysis showed no direct link when T2 perceid goal relization was controled.