Correlational findings

Study Gorman (1971): study US 1970

Undergraduate students, Nassau Community College, USA, 1970
N = 67
Non Response:
4%, 3% refusal, 1% incomplete information
Multiple methods
Questionnaires administered in class and daily records kept at home during 28 days


Authors's label
Elation vs depression
Our Classification
Selfreport on single question, answered every evening before retiring during six weeks (experience sampling)
On average;  how elated or depressed,  happy or unhappy you felt today....?
10 Complete elation, rapturous joy and soaring ecstasy
9  Very elated and in very high spirits.Tremendous delight and buoyancy
8  Elated and in high spirits
7  Feeling very good and cheerful
6  Feeling pretty good , "OK"
5  Feeling a little bit low. Just so-so
4  Spirits low and somewhat 'blue'
3  Depressed and feeling very low.  Definitely 'blue'
2  Tremendously depressed.
   Feeling terrible, really miserable, "just awful"
1  Utter depression and gloom. Completely down. All is black and leaden. Wish it were all over.

Name:  Wessman & Ricks'  `Elation - depression scale'

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks C-BW-c-sq-l-11-b r = +.26 Mean daily average mood: r = +.26 (05)
Mean daily highest mood: r = +.29 (05)
Mean daily lowest mood : r = +.16 (ns)