Study Gorman (1971): study US 1970
- Undergraduate students, Nassau Community College, USA, 1970
- N = 67
- Non Response
- 4%, 3% refusal, 1% incomplete information
Multiple assesment methods
Questionnaires administered in class and daily records kept at home during 28 days
- Authors's Label
- Elation vs depression
- Our Classification
- Happiness measure type A-ARE
- Selfreport on single question, answered every evening before retiring during six weeks (experience sampling)
On average; how elated or depressed, happy or unhappy you felt today....?
10 Complete elation, rapturous joy and soaring ecstasy
9 Very elated and in very high spirits.Tremendous delight and buoyancy
8 Elated and in high spirits
7 Feeling very good and cheerful
6 Feeling pretty good , "OK"
5 Feeling a little bit low. Just so-so
4 Spirits low and somewhat 'blue'
3 Depressed and feeling very low. Definitely 'blue'
2 Tremendously depressed.
Feeling terrible, really miserable, "just awful"
1 Utter depression and gloom. Completely down. All is black and leaden. Wish it were all over.
Name: Wessman & Ricks' `Elation - depression scale'
Observed Relation with Happiness
Mean daily highest mood: r = +.29 (05)
Mean daily lowest mood : r = +.16 (ns)