Correlational findings

Study Gorman (1971): study US 1970

Undergraduate students, Nassau Community College, USA, 1970
N = 67
Non Response:
4%, 3% refusal, 1% incomplete information
Multiple methods
Questionnaires administered in class and daily records kept at home during 28 days


Authors's label
Temporal orientation
Our Classification
a.  Time Anxiety
    16-item index referring to anxiety
    about the flow of time, fear of the
    future, longing for the past
    (Time Anxiety Scale; see Calabresi
    & Cohen, 1968).

b.  Time submissiveness
    9-item index referring to a confor-
    ming, pedantic attitude towards        punctuality.
    (Time Submissiveness Scale; see
    Calabresii & Cohen, 1968).

c.  Time possessiveness
    5-item index referring to a greedy
    and possessive attitude towards
    (Time Possessiveness Scale; see
    Calabresi & Cohen, 1968).

d.  Time flexibility
    8-item index referring to an accep-
    ting and flexible attitude towards
    (Time Flexibility Scale; see
    Calabresi & Cohen, 1968).

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-b r = -.31 p < .05 a. C-BW-c-sq-l-11-b r = -.31 p < .05 a. A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-b r = -.03 ns b.
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-b r = +.07 ns b.
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-b r = -.15 ns c. C-BW-c-sq-l-11-b r = -.30 p < .05 c.
A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-b r = +.24 ns d.
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-b r = +.09 ns d.