Correlational findings

Study Palmore (1981): study US 1968

46+ aged whites, North Carolina, USA, followed from 1968 to 1976.
N = 375
Non Response:
Interview: face-to-face
Whole-day interviews, tests and examinations. Rounds in longitudinal study; examined period: 1968/70 N=502, 1970/72 N= 443, 1972/74 N= 378, 1974/76 N= 375


Authors's label
T1 internal control
Our Classification
Index containing four pairs of statements e,g, "some of the good and some of the bad things in my life have happened by chance" (external control).
"What happened to me has been my own doing" (internal control).
Each S was asked which one of each pair is more true for him.
(from the Internal-External Control of Reinforcement Scale; see Jesson at al. (1968).
0= external
1= internal
Scale 0-4.
Assessed at T1.

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks C-BW-c-sq-l-10-ca r = + p < .05 T1 internal control by T2 happiness
Males  : r =      (ns)
Females: r = +.14 (05)
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-b r = + Males  : r =      (ns)
Females: r = +.19 (05)