Study Kainulainen (1998): study FI 1991
- 18+ aged, general public, former province Kuopio, Finland, 1991-1996
- N = 2682
- Non Response
- not rep
- Questionnaire: Paper & Pencil Interview (PAPI)
- Authors's Label
- Scantiness of a pension
- Our Classification
Never: N = 2054
Ever in your life: N = 332
- Have you experienced scantiness of a pension
(a) during the last year ?
(b) ever in your life ?
Answers: No(=0) or Yes(=1).
Observed Relation with Happiness
ever in your life: M = 3.71
95% CI for difference: [0.09 ; 0.29]