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Correlational findings

Study Kainulainen (1998): study FI 1991

Public:
18+ aged, general public, former province Kuopio, Finland, 1991-1996
Sample:
Respondents:
N = 2682
Non Response:
not rep
Assessment:
Questionnaire: paper

Correlate

Authors's label
Being heavily indebted
Our Classification
Operationalization
Have you experienced being heavily indebted
(a) during the last year ?
(b) ever in your life ?
Answer:  No (=0) or Yes (=1)

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-g r = -.25 during the last year O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-g r = -.24 ever in your life O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-g DM = - never:                   M = 3.95
ever in your life:       M = 3.41
95% CI for difference:   [0.45 ; 0.63]