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Correlational findings

Study Bray & Howard (1983): study US 1956

Public:
40+ aged male managers, Bell Telephone Company, 1956-1980
Sample:
Respondents:
N = 422
Non Response:
Panel loss at T5 37%
Assessment:
Rating by experts
Expert ratings based on various methods used in assesment center

Correlate

Authors's label
Cynicism
Our Classification
Operationalization
Rating by 4 experts on the basis of multi-method assessments during stays in assessment-center.

Rater instruction "To what extent does this person disbelieve in human goodness and refrain from idealizing human nature" (Philosophical attitude).

Assessed at T5.

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks M-PL-c-rc-v-5-a r = T5 cynicism by T5 happiness.

Analysis showed a significantly negative correlation.N=80 (BRAY 1980) r= -.38, p<.001