Correlational findings

Study Bray & Howard (1980): study US 1956

40+ aged, male managers, Bell Telephone Company, 1956-1976
N = 422
Non Response:
panel loss a t T5: 37%
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Authors's label
Earlier selfconfidence
Our Classification
Guilford-Martin Inventory of Factors: GAMIN-I scale.
This inventory reflects on characteristics of a positive self-concept.
This sub-scale in particular reflects lack on inferiority feelings. High scorers believe they can cope with most situations, and that people will treat them well. They feel worthy as individuals without the approval of others.

Assessed at T1 (20 years before T5).

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks M-PL-c-rc-v-5-a r = +.35 p < .01 T1 selfconfidence by T5 happiness

Later analysis of the full study-group (N=266) also showed a significantly positive correlation (BRAY 1983 p 303).