Findings on happiness in Williams (1981): study GB 1981

Author(s)Williams, D.G.
TitlePersonality and Mood: State-Trait Relationships.
SourcePersonality and Individual Differences, 1981, Vol. 2, 303 -309
PublicUniversity students, England, 1981
 Age: M= 21.36 SD=2.48, Males=15 Females=18
Survey nameNot available
SampleNon-probability accidental sample
 Volunteer students at university of Sussex
Respondents N =33
Non ResponseNot available
AssesmentQuestionnaire: paper
General remarksMood ratings were completed on each Monday, Wednesday, and Friday between 12:30 to 13:00.for 4 consecutive weeks, so all subjects rated on the 12 days out of a 26 day period. 18 mood scales for 396 cases(33 sbujects 12 days)
Happiness measure(s) used
Full textDaily self report of mood on 95 questions: How I feel . Items from 18 mood scales concerning A depression B confusion C anxiety D tension-anxiety E aggression F skepticism G fatigue H guilt I shyness J concentration K general deactivation L affection M general activation N surgency O euphoria P elation Q wakefulnes Rated on a 100 mm open line scale ranging from 0 No, not at all to 1 Yes, extremely Summation: first component in principal component analysis, average over all days
Author's labelGeneral mood
RemarksAverage not reported
Error estimatesAverage inter-day correlation: +. 39
Finding used in
nation ranks

Correlational findings

Author's labelSubject Code
Subject description
Personality and moodP05ccNeurotic