Findings on happiness in VanHemert et al. (2002a): study ZZ 1974

Author(s)VanHemert, D.A.; Poortinga, Y.H.; VandeVijver, F.J.
TitleThe Beck Depression Inventory as a Measure of Subjective Well-Being: A Cross-National Study.
SourceJournal of Happiness Study, 2002, Vol. 3, 257 - 286
PublicAdults, general public, 30 countries, 1974-1999
 266 separate samples in 30 countries: Australia, Argentina, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, China, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany West, Greece, Iceland, India, Iran, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Netherland, New zealand, Nigeria, Norway, Spain, Sweden, Turkey, United Kingdom, United States, Hongkong
Survey nameNot available
 Three data-sets were composed: 1. 72 studies using the 1961 version of the BDI in 117 samples of respondents in 25 nations. Publications in 1974-1999. 2.37 studies using the 1978 version of the BDI in 56 samples of respondents in 13 nations. Publications in 1988-1999. 3. 13 studies using the short version of the BDI in 33 samples in 8 nations. Publications in 1984-1997. To calculate correlations between BDI-scores and country-characteristics mean BDI-scores were were aggregated at country-level, weighed by sample size.
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
 266 studies using different sampling methods. Studies were found by searching PsycInfo using the keywords BDI and Beck and Depression. Kuwait and Israel were deleted from the data set.
Respondents N =44098
 266 studies involving 44,098 respondents
Non Responsenot reported
AssesmentQuestionnaire: paper
General remarksType of research: meta-analysis.
Happiness measure(s) used
Full textSelfreport on single questions: This measure of average happiness in nations combines responses to different questions on happiness and life-satisfaction rated on different scales. Precise items and rating scales differ per nation. Average scores per nation were transformed afterwards to a common 0-10 scale. Name: Diener's SWB-score of nations
Author's labelDiener's SWB
RemarksDiener's subjective well-being was derived from Diener et al (1995) who combined scores from three national surveys from Veenhoven (1995) and a student survey (from Michalos, 1997). This data are of different years, response formats, and method of calibration across surveys. This score is available for 25 countries.
Finding used in
nation ranks

Full textSelfreport on two questions: A Taking all together, how happy would you say you are? 4 very happy 3 quite happy 2 not very happy 1 not at all happy B All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life as-a-whole now? 10 satisfied 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 dissatisfied Computation: (Ax2,5) +B -10 Name: Inglehart's combined score
Author's labelInglehart's SWB
RemarksData World Values Survey 2, average of scores on single questions on happiness and life-satisfaction in 23 of the participating nations.
Finding used in
nation ranks

Correlational findings

Author's labelSubject Code
Subject description
Affect BalanceN09ab01acOverall happiness (life-satisfaction) in nation
Affect BalanceH07aa02Overall Happiness and Hedonic Affect-level, also classified as above ↑
AffluenceN14ab09Summed nation characteristics
Autonomy (Schwartz value)N02ab06Value climate in the nation
CalvinismN02ab04Religion in nation
Civil rightsN07ab03Human-rights protection in nation
Confucian Work Dynamism (Chinese value)N02ab06Value climate in the nation
CynicismN11ab31aTrust in fellow-man in nation
Death by political violenceN12ab05bPolitical violence in nation
DepressionN09ab01bbMental health in nation
Depression prevalence rateN09ab01bbMental health in nation
Economic growthN04aa02gEconomic growth/decline in nation
Extraversion (Eysenck)N11ab13Extraversion in nation
Gini indexN14ab02dIncome inequality in nation
Gross National ProductN04ab01aGnp per capita (raw)
Hierachy factor (Schwartz value)N02ab06Value climate in the nation
Human-heartedness (Chinese value)N02ab06Value climate in the nation
Importance of happinessN02ab06cHedonic values in nation
Importance of happinessN11ab15Hedonism in nation, also classified as above ↑
Importance of happinessH11acValuation of happiness, also classified as above ↑
Individualism (Hofstede)N11ab16Individualism/collectivism in nation
Integration (Chinese value)N02ab06Value climate in the nation
Level of democracyN12ab04Political democracy in nation
Married femalesN14ab03bMarriage pattern in nation
Married malesN14ab03bMarriage pattern in nation
Masculinity (Hofstede)N02ab06Value climate in the nation
Moral discipline (Chinese value)N02ab06Value climate in the nation
Negative AffectN09ab01aaAffect in nation
Neuroticism (Eysenck)N09ab01bbMental health in nation
Neuroticism (Eysenck)N11ab24Neuroticism in nation, also classified as above ↑
Political Rights and DemocracyN12ab04Political democracy in nation
Positive affectN09ab01aaAffect in nation
Power distance (Hofstede)N14ab02gStatus differentiation (stratification) in nation
Power distance (Hofstede)N02ab06Value climate in the nation, also classified as above ↑
Psychoticism (Eysenck)N09ab01bbMental health in nation
Psychoticism (Eysenck)N11ab27Psychoticism in nation, also classified as above ↑
ReligiosityN02ab04Religion in nation
Social desirability (Eysenck)N11ab22Honesty in nation
Stability of democracyN12ab04bParliamentary democracy in nation
Suicide rateN09ab01dcSuicide in nation
Uncertainty Avoidance (Hofstede)N02ab06Value climate in the nation
UnemployedN04ab02bUnemployment in nation