Findings on happiness in Lee & Ellithorpe (1982): study US Washington 1975

Author(s)Lee, G.R.; Ellithorpe, E.
TitleIntergenerational Exchange and Subjective Well-Being among the Elderly.
SourceJournal of Marriage and the Family, 1982, Vol. 44, 217 -224
Public60+ aged, living near children, USA, Washington State, 1975
Survey nameNot available
SampleProbability simple random sample
 selected from all telephone directories in the state
Respondents N =403
Non Response25.1%
AssesmentQuestionnaire: paper
Happiness measure(s) used
Full textSelfreport on 6 questions: A On the whole, life gives me a lot of pleasure B On the whole, I am very satisfied with my life today C Things are getting just worse for me as I get older D All in all, I find a great deal of happiness today E I have a lot to be sad about F Nothing ever turn out for me the way I want it Scoring 4 strongly agree 3 2 1 strongly disagree Computation: simple addition. Possible range 6-24
Author's labelmorale
Page in publication220
Remarksmales: Mean 18.6 SD 2.3 females: Mean 18.5 SD 2.5
Finding used in
nation ranks
 On original range 6 - 24On range 0 - 10
Standard deviation2.40

Correlational findings

Author's labelSubject Code
Subject description
AgeA04ab03Age-differences among elders
Aid givenS11ab01Amount of support provided
Aid receivedS10ab01Amount of current support received
Aid receivedC05ab02Relation with children living on their own, also classified as above ↑
EducationE01ab02Level of school-education
HealthH14ab02aGlobal health rating
InteractionC05ab02Relation with children living on their own
Marital statusM02aaMarried state (compared to non-married states)
Number of childrenC03ab01Number of children
regression of morale on indepent variablesS15ab08Socio-demographic + social ties