Findings on happiness in Washburn et al. (1926): study US 1924

Author(s)Washburn, M.F.; Booth, M.E.; Glicksmann, E.; Stocker, S.
TitleA comparison of directed and free recalls of pleasant and unpleasant experiences as test of cheerful and depressed temperaments.
SourceAmerican Journal of Psychology, 1926, Vol. 7, 278 - 288
PublicFemale students, cheerful and depressed, USA, 192?
Survey nameNot available
SampleNot available
 Non-probability purposive sample, selected for typical mood. Cheerful group: N = 64; depressed group: N = 59. The analysis was performed by comparing the cheerful group (with hedonic level scores from 14 to 16) and the depressed group (with scores up to and including 10). The other Ss were excluded.
Respondents N =123
Non Response-
AssesmentQuestionnaire: paper
 Questionnaire administered in class. Additionally peerratings of cheerfullness and projective tests during 3 days
Happiness measure(s) used
Full textSelfreport + 3 peer ratings, on same single question: A. Selfreport: Each subject was asked to judge herself using one of four terms. (Precise lead item not reported) B. Peer ratings: The judgments of three friends were obtained using the terms. Response options: 4 steadily cheerful 3 variable tending to cheerfulness 2 variable tending to depression 1 steadily depressed Summation: a + b/2
Author's labelCheerfulness
RemarksNegatively skewed Possible range: 4 - 16
Finding used in
nation ranks

Correlational findings

Author's labelSubject Code
Subject description
Promptness of plea- sant associationsP04cgPositive reacting
Recall pleasant associationsP04cgPositive reacting