Findings on happiness in Bankoff (1981): study US 1979

Author(s)Bankoff, E.A.
TitleEffects of Friendship Support on the Psychological Well-Being of Widows.
SourceResearch in the Interweave of Social Roles. Friendship, 1981, Vol. 2, 109 - 139
PublicWidowed women in grief, USA, 198?
 Year of data gathgering not reported
Survey nameNot available
SampleNot available
 Non-probability quota sample. Persons appearing on the adress-list of two organizations of widowed people were sent a questionnaire. One of these organizations was a local one (Chicago), the other was national. Both members and non-members ever invited to join, were contacted. The questionnaire was returned by 1380 persons. From these, females were selected who met the following criteria: 1) Crisis Loss Phase: widowed less than 18 months and reporting to be still in the midst of intense grief. N = 126 2) Transition Phase : widowed between 2 and 5 years and reporting to be still grieving to a limited extent. N = 321
Respondents N =447
Non Response50%
AssesmentQuestionnaire: paper
 Mailed questionnaire
General remarksThe contrast groups did not differ in: age, employment status, S.E.S., education, economic distress, length of residency, size of community, number of living children, Catholic, Protestant, Caucasion, Need for affiliation and prior dependency on spouse.
Happiness measure(s) used
Full textSelfreport on 9 questions: We are interested in the way people are feeling these days. The following list describes some of the ways people feel at different times. Please indicate how often you felt each way during the last week. How often last week did you feel .....? A On the top of the world B Very lonely or remote from other people C Particularly excited or interested in something D Depressed or very unhappy E Pleased about having accomplished something F Bored G Proud because someone complimented you on something you had done H So restless you couldn't sit long in a chair I Vaguely uneasy about something without knowing why Answer options: 0 not at all 1 once 2 several times 3 often Summation: Positive Affect Score (PAS): summed scores on A, C, E, G Negative Affect Score (NAS): summed scores on B, D, F, H, I Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS Possible range: -15 tot +12 Name: Bradburn's `Affect Balance Scale' (modified version)
Author's labelOverall psychological well-being
Finding used in
nation ranks

Correlational findings

Author's labelSubject Code
Subject description
Sources of friendship supportS10ab02Sources of current support
Stage of mourning processC10ab04aCoping with divorce/widowhood
Stage of mourning processG02GRIEF, also classified as above ↑
Type of friendship supportS10ab03Kind of social support received