Findings on happiness in Matlin (1966): study PR 1963

Author(s)Matlin, N.
TitleThe Demography of Happiness.
SourceUniversity of Puerto Rico, Health & Welfare Series 2, nr. 3, 1966, Puerto Rico
Public20+ aged, general public, Puerto Rico, 1963-1964
Collect period11
 Nov.,1963, -Jan.,1964 and Aug.-Oct.,1964
Survey nameNot available
SampleNot available
 Probability simple random sample of Puerto Ricans of age 20+ See also MATLI 1966/2 validation sample: 114 out-patients of psychiatric hospital.
Respondents N =1417
 (excluding validation sample)
Non ResponseNot available
AssesmentInterview: face-to-face
 Structured interview
Happiness measure(s) used
Full textSelfreport on single question: Taking all things together, how would you say things are these days? Would you say you are...? 3 very happy 2 fairly happy 1 not too happy
Author's labelHappiness
Page in publication5
Error estimatesReliability: Validity: External congruent validity. Validation sample of psychiatric patients appeared significantly less happy than average Puerto Ricans. (See MATLI 1966/2)
Finding used in
nation ranks
 On original range 1 - 3On range 0 - 10
Standard deviation0.691.77

Scores in123

Full textSelfreport on 9 questions: During the past few weeks, did you ever feel ....? (yes/no) B So restless that you couldn't sit long in a chair? C Proud because someone complimented you on something you had done? D Very lonely or remote from other people? E Pleased about having accomplished something? F Bored? G On top of the world? H Depressed or very unhappy? I That things were going your way? J Upset because someone criticized you? Answer options and scoring: yes = 1 no = 0 Summation: -Positive Affect Score (PAS): AC+E+G+I -Negative Affect Score (NAS): B+D+F+H+J -Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS Possible range: -5 to +4 Name: Bradburn's 'Affect Balance Scale' (adjusted version 'exited/interested' item dropped)
Author's labelHappiness
RemarksPossible range: -6(low) to +3(high); Actual range: 15% score -3 or less; 19% score -1 or -2; 29% score 0; 23% score 1, 14% score 2 or 3 M = -.38 Ms' = 6.2 -3 = 2.16"
Error estimatesReliablility: Equivalence positive items : Q ranging from +.36 to +.58 Equivalence negative items : Q ranging from +.66 to +.84 positive x negative items : Q ranging from -.05 to +.30 positive affect score x negative affect score: G' = -.14 (01) Validity: External congruent validity. Validation sample of psychiatric patients appeared significantly less happy than average Puerto Ricans. (See MATLI 1966/2)
Finding used in
nation ranks
 On original range -5 - 4On range 0 - 10
Standard deviation

Full textSelfreport on single question: " Are you most of the time in ....?" 4 very good spirits 3 good spirits 2 low spirits 1 very low spirits
Author's labelSpirits
RemarksFindings based on this measure are not reported in this publication.
Finding used in
nation ranks

Correlational findings

Author's labelSubject Code
Subject description
Affect BalanceH07aa02bO-HL by A-AB
AgeA04abCurrent age (in years)
Being in good spiritsH07ab02bA-AOL by A-AB
BoredM15ac10cFeeling interested
Depresssed or unhappyM15ac04bFeeling down (vs not)
Divorced vs separatedM02ab03aVs separated
Economic prosperity of the countryN04ab01Economic affluence in nation
Educational levelE01ab02Level of school-education
Enjoying lifeH11ab03cPerceived difference with own happiness
Feeling restlessM15ac15Feeling tranquil (vs restless)
Feeling uneasyM15ac11Feeling secure (vs threatened)
IncomeI01abCurrent income level (unspecified)
InertiaM15ac06Feeling energetic (vs lethargic, tired)
Living as married vs divorcedM02ac04Living-as-married vs divorced
Living as married vs separatedM02ac05Living-as-married vs separated
Living as married vs widowedM02ac03Living-as-married vs widowed
Living as married vs. formally marriedM02aa07Formally-married vs living-as-married
Living as married vs. never marriedM02ac02Living-as-married vs never married
Lonely or remoteM15ac05aFeeling lonely (vs not)
Male sexG01aaSex (male vs female)
Married vs divorcedM02aa03Married vs divorced
Married vs never marriedM02aa01Married vs never married
Married vs separatedM02aa04Married vs separated
Married vs widowedM02aa02Married vs widowed
Mental disturbancesH16ab01Being in treatment for mental disorder (vs not)
Mental disturbancesH16ab04aIn ambulatory treatment, also classified as above ↑
Never married separatedM02ab01cVs separated
Never married vs divorcedM02ab01bVs divorced
Never married widowedM02ab01aVs widowed
On top of the worldM15ab01Mood during the interview
Physical ailmentsH14ab02cNumber of health complaints
Pleased at accomplishmentM15ac12Feeling self-confident (vs inadequate)
Proud of complimentM15ac12Feeling self-confident (vs inadequate)
RestlessM15ac15Feeling tranquil (vs restless)
Self-perceived healthH14ab02aGlobal health rating
UneasyM15ac04Feeling cheerful (vs gloomy)
Widowed vs divorcedM02ab02aVs divorced
Widowed vs separatedM02ab02bVs separated