Findings on happiness in Lichter et al. (1980): study NZ 1976

Author(s)Lichter, S.; Haye, K.; Kammann, R.
TitleIncreasing Happiness through Cognitive Retraining.
SourceNew Zealand Psychologist, 1980, Vol. 9, 57 - 64
PublicPsychology students, followed 2 weeks, University of Otago New Zealand, 1976
Survey nameUnnamed study
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Respondents N =48
 Control group 23, experimental group 25
Non ResponseNot available
AssesmentQuestionnaire: paper
 Filled out alone
General remarksExperiment also described in: Kamman,R.,Sourcebook for Affectometer. Publisher: Why not? Foundation, Dunedin, New Zealand. From this paper several data are included.
Happiness measure(s) used
Full textSelfreport on 48 questions: Over this period I have had the feeling: (Timeframe chosen by subjects: mostly past few weeks) A Nothing goes right with me B I feel close to people around me C I feel as though the best years of my life are over D I feel my life is on the right track E I feel loved and trusted F My work gives me a lot of pleasure G I don't like myself H I feel very tense I I feel life isn't worth living J I am content with myself K My past life is filled with failure L Everything I do seems worthwhile M I can't be bothered doing anything N I feel I can do whatever I want to O I have lost interest in other people and don't care about them P Everything is going right for me Q I can express my feelings and emotions towards other people R I'm easy going S I seem to bee left alone when I don't want to be T I wish I could change some parts of my life U I seem to have no real drive to do anything V The future looks good W I become very lonely X I can concentrate well on what I'm doing Y I feel out of place Z I think clearly and creatively AA I feel alone AB I feel free and easy AC I smile and laugh a lot AD I feel things are going my way AE The world seems a cold and impersonal place AF I feel I've made a mess of things again AG I feel like hiding away AH I feel confident about decisions I make AI I feel depressed for no apparent reason AJ I feel other people like me AK I feel like a failure AL I feel I'm a complete person AM I'm not sure I'm done the right thing AN My future looks good AO I'm making the most out of my life AP Everything is going right for me AQ I feel unimportant AR I feel as though there must be something wrong with me AS I don't feel like making the effort to do anything AT I feel confident in my dealings with the opposite sex AU I want to hurt those who have hurt me AV The results I have obtained make my efforts worthwhile Answer options: 0 not at all 1 occasionally 2 some of the time 3 often 4 all of the time Summation: - Positive Affect Score (PAS): mean positive items - Negative Affect Score (NAS): mean negative items - Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS Possible range: -4 to +4 Name: Kamman's Affectometer 1: version period unspecified
Author's labelAffectometer 1, short form
Finding used in
nation ranks
 On original range -4 - 4On range 0 - 10
Standard deviation1.20

Correlational findings

Author's labelSubject Code
Subject description
Beck Depression InventoryH13ac04aDepressive (f31-33)
Happiness inductionH04ab02Actual changes in happiness
Happiness inductionH16ae02aExercise, also classified as above ↑
Happiness inductionH16ae05aMandatory, also classified as above ↑
Happiness inductionH16ae04aMono sort, also classified as above ↑
Happiness inductionH16ae03bMultiple treatment moments, also classified as above ↑
Happiness inductionH16ad03kPositive thinking training, also classified as above ↑
Happiness inductionH16ae06bSchool, also classified as above ↑
Sumscore of domain- satisfactionsL04ad02Satisfaction with multiple domains of life