Findings on happiness in Lichter et al. (1980): study NZ 1978

Author(s)Lichter, S.; Haye, K.; Kammann, R.
TitleIncreasing Happiness through Cognitive Retraining.
SourceNew Zealand Psychologist, 1980, Vol. 9, 57 - 64
PublicAdults, trainees and controls, followed 10 weeks, Dunedin, New Zealand, 1978
Survey nameNot available
SampleNot available
 Non-probability purposive sample. Volunteer adults recruted by a newspaper advertisement. Screened out for psychopathology. Divided randomly into 10 treatment- and 13 control-subjects.
Respondents N =23
Non Response15%
AssesmentQuestionnaire: paper
 Administered at beginning, after a 4-weeks course and 6 weeks later.
General remarksExperiment also described in: Kamman,R.,Sourcebook for Affectometer. Publisher: Why not? Foundation, Dunedin, New Zealand. From this paper several data are included.
Happiness measure(s) used
Full textSelfreport on 48 questions: SENTENCES Each of the sentences below describes a FEELING. Mark HOW OFTEN you had that feeling during the past few weeks. A Nothing goes right with me B I feel close to people around me C I feel as though the best years of my life are over D I feel my life is on the right track E I feel loved and trusted F My work gives me a lot of pleasure G I don't like myself H I feel very tense I I feel life isn't worth living J I am content with myself K My past life is filled with failure L Everything I do seems worthwhile M I an't be bothered doing anything N I feel I can do whatever I want to O I have lost interest in other people and don't care about them P Everything is going right for me Q I can express my feelings and emotions towards other people R I'm easy going S I seem to be left alone when I don't want to be T I wish I could change some parts of my life U I seem to have no real drive to do anything V The future looks good W I become very lonely X I can concentrate well on what I'm doing Y I feel out of place Z I think clearly and creatively AA I feel alone AB I feel free and easy AC I smile and laugh a lot AD I feel things are going my way AE The world seems a cold and impersonal place AF I feel I've made a mess of things again AG I feel like hiding away AH I feel confident about decisions I make AI I feel depressed for no apparent reason AJ I feel other people like me AK I feel like a failure AL I feel I'm a complete person AM I'm not sure I'm done the right thing AN My future looks good AO I'm making the most out of my life AP Everything is going right for me AQ I feel unimportant AR I feel as though there must be something wrong with me AS I don't feel like making the effort to do anything AT I feel confident in my dealings with the opposite sex AU I want to hurt those who have hurt me AV The results I have obtained make my efforts worthwhile ADJECTIVES Each of the objectives below describe a FEELING. Mark HOW OFTEN you had that feeling during the past few weeks; A Confident B Hopeless C Pleasant D Insignificant E Discontented F Healthy G Dejected H Annoyed I Down J Glad K Glowing L Relaxed M Comfortable N Moody O Understood P Blue Q Miserable R Joyful S Tense T Insecure U Shaky V Satisfied W Safe X Successful Y Free Z Sad AA Good-natured AB Impatient AC Rejected AD Lively AE Frustrated AF Fearful AG Lonely AH Warm AI Contented AJ Good AK Secure AL Disappointed AM Understanding AN Depressed AO Low AP Calm AQ Unhappy AR Upset AS Empty AT Enthusiastic AU Happy AV Vibrant Answer options: 0 not at all 1 occasionally 2 some of the time 3 often 4 all of the time Summation: -Positive Affect Score (PAS): mean positive items -Negative Affect Score (NAS): mean negative items -Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS Possible range - 4 to +4 Name: Kamman's Affectometer 1: version last month
Author's labelAffectometer 1; short form
Error estimatesReliability: _=.96. r=.94 for the control group in retest after 4 weeks and .93 after 10 weeks. Validity: r=-.70 with Beck Depression Inventory.
Finding used in
nation ranks
 On original range -4 - 4On range 0 - 10
Standard deviation0.90

Full textSelfreport on single question: ".........satisfaction with life right now........." (Full question not reported) 1 - 2 3 4 5 6 7 + Response options not reported.
Author's labelGlobal life satisfaction
Finding used in
nation ranks

Full textSelfreport on single question: "Taking all things together, how happy would you say you have been feeling OVER THE PAST WEEK. Please place an x by the choice which best describes how happy you have felt. Try to be as accurate as you can. Over the past week I have been feeling..." 5 very happy 4 happy 3 somewhat happy 2 unhappy 1 very unhappy
Author's labelHappiness criterion
Finding used in
nation ranks

Correlational findings

Author's labelSubject Code
Subject description
Beliefs about selfP03aaChange in personality
Beliefs about selfS02aa02Change in self-image, also classified as above ↑
Beliefs about selfH16ac05Effects of happiness-training, also classified as above ↑
Beliefs about selfP05cmRigid, also classified as above ↑
Course on happiness and positive mental healthS02aa02Change in self-image
Course on happiness and positive mental healthH16ac05Effects of happiness-training, also classified as above ↑
Future happiness (retest)H04ab01aRecent happiness (< 1 year ago)
Sumscore domain- satisfactionsL04ad02Satisfaction with multiple domains of life