Findings on happiness in Wilkening & McGranahan (1978): study US Wisconsin 1974 /1

Author(s)Wilkening, E.A.; McGranahan, D.H.
TitleCorrelates of Subjective Well-Being in Northern Wisconsin.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1978, Vol. 5, 211 - 234
Public18+ aged, general public, NW Wisconsin-residents, USA, 1974
Survey nameNot available
SampleNot available
 Multistage probability cluster sample, selecting within the 19 counties of NW-Wisconsin, USA, houses with eligible respondents.
Respondents N =1423
Non Response12%
AssesmentInterview: face-to-face
 Structured interview
General remarksSame study also reported in BHARA 1977, LINN 1980, MARTI 1984, MARTI 1985
Happiness measure(s) used
Full textSelfreport on single question, asked twice in interview: Considering everything, how satisfied are you with your life as a whole........? 7 completely satisfied 6 5 4 3 2 1 completely dissatisfied Summation: both scores added Possible range: 2 to 14
Author's labelLife satisfaction
Remarksfirst question M=5.82 (possible range 1-7); Ms'=8.03 second question M=5.62 (possible range 1-7); Ms'=7.70
Error estimatesReliability: equivalence: r= +.56 Validity:
Finding used in
nation ranks

Correlational findings

Author's labelSubject Code
Subject description
Church attendanceR12ad02Participation in church
Contact with friendsF06acCurrent contacts with friends
Contact with relativesF03ab02Contacts with relatives
Having childrenC03abCurrent parental status
Health problemsH14ac01Degree of restriction
IncomeI01ab03Household income
Joint effectS15ab14Socio-demographic + environment + health + life events + ties
Level of educationE01ab02Level of school-education
Level of livingC10ab03cDurables
Level of livingP12ab02Specific possessions, also classified as above ↑
Live aloneH20ab01Living alone or not
Male sexG01aaSex (male vs female)
MarriedM02aaMarried state (compared to non-married states)
Occupational statusS09ab01'Objective' socio-economic status
Organizational membershipS07ab01Membership of voluntary organizations
Recent moveM09aa01dRecently moved
RetirementR14abCurrent status: retired or not
Rural livingL13ab02aOpen country vs village
separated/divorcedM02ab03Divorced or separated
UnemployedE02abCurrent employment status
Urban livingL13ab02bRural vs urban dwelling
WidowedM02aa02Married vs widowed