Findings on happiness in Andrews & Withey (1976): study US 1973

Publication
Author(s)Andrews, F.M.; Withey, S.B.
TitleSocial Indicators of Well-Being. Americans Perceptions of Life Quality.
SourcePlenum Press, 1976, New York, USA
Investigation
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 1973/3
Collect period4
Survey nameUnnamed study
SampleProbability area sample
 Probability area sample of adults (age 18+) living in non-institutional dwelling units of the 48 coterminous states. The sample is limited to American citizens, and was not tested for representativeness, but no gross biases are expected.
Respondents N =1433
Non Response26%
AssesmentInterview: face-to-face
 using highly structured questionnaires
General remarksSee also US 1973/1, US 1973/2, US 1973/3, US 1973/4, US 1973/5, US 1973/6
Happiness measure(s) used
Full textSelfreport on single question: How do you feel about your life as a whole.....? 7 delighted 6 pleased 5 mostly satisfied 4 mixed 3 mostly dissatisfied 2 unhappy 1 terrible Name: Andrews & Withey's `Delighted-Terrible Scale' (original version)
ClassificationO-DT-u-sq-v-7-a
Author's labelLife1 (and Life2) (G1-G2)
Page in publication209
Error estimatesReliability: repeat-reliability (correlation between scores on the same questions asked twice during the interview): r=+.68 Validity:
Finding used in
nation ranks
Yes
 On original range 1 - 7On range 0 - 10
Mean5.307.17
Standard deviation1.051.75


Full textSelfreport on single question, asked twice in interview: How do you feel about your life as a whole......? 7 delighted 6 pleased 5 mostly satisfied 4 mixed 3 mostly dissatisfied 2 unhappy 1 terrible Summation: arithmetic mean Name: Andrews & Withey's "Delighted-Terrible Scale" (original version) Also known as Lehman's 'Global lifesatisfaction'
ClassificationO-DT-u-sqt-v-7-a
Author's labelLife3 (G3)
Page in publication311
RemarksCombination of two ratings on 7-step scale results in 14 steps, with the following frequencies 7.0 6.5 6.0 5.5 5.0 4.5 4.0 3.5 3.0 2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0 % % % % % % % % % % % % % 6.8 8.7 23.9 19.2 22.4 8.0 6.4 1.4 1.1 0.6 0.7 0.4 0.4
Finding used in
nation ranks
Yes
 On original range 1 - 7On range 0 - 10
Mean5.407.33
Standard deviation


Full textSelfreport on single question: "Here is a picture of a ladder. At the bottom of the ladder is the worst life you might reasonably expect to have. At the top is the best life you might expect to have. Of course, life from week to week falls somewhere in between. Where was your life most of the time during the past year?" [ 9 ] best life you might expect to have [ 8 ] [ 7 ] [ 6 ] [ 5 ] [ 4 ] [ 3 ] [ 2 ] [ 1 ] worst life you might expect to have Name: Cantril's self anchoring ladder rating (modified version)
ClassificationC-BW-cy-sq-l-9-a
Author's labelLadder (G6)
Page in publication209
Finding used in
nation ranks
Yes
 On original range 1 - 9On range 0 - 10
Mean6.076.34
Standard deviation1.632.03

Scores in123456789
%1.02.03.07.023.023.023.011.07.0

Full textSelfreport on single question: "Here are some circles that we can imagine represent the lives of different people. Circle eight has all pluses in it, to represent a person who has all the good things in his life. Circle zero has all minuses in it, to represent a person who has all the bad things in his life. Other circles are in between. Which circle do you think comes closest to matching your life?" (circles not reproduced here ) 8 + + + + + + + + 7 + + + + + + + - 6 + + + + + + - - 5 + + + + + - - - 4 + + + + - - - - 3 + + + - - - - - 2 + + - - - - - - 2 + - - - - - - - 0 - - - - - - - - Name: Andrews & Withey's 'Circles Scale'
ClassificationO-GBB-u-sq-c-9-a
Author's labelCircles (G7)
Page in publication209
Finding used in
nation ranks
Yes
 On original range 0 - 8On range 0 - 10
Mean6.538.16
Standard deviation1.511.89

Scores in012345678
%11.015.027.020.022.03.01.00.01.0

Correlational findings

Author's labelSubject Code
Finding
Subject description
AgeA04abCurrent age (in years)
Educational levelE01ab02Level of school-education
Expected change in happinessH04aa04aIn the near future (up to 5 years)
Expected change in happinessI06ab01Sequence of items, also classified as above ↑
Expected change in happiness: Progress past & futureH04aa04aIn the near future (up to 5 years)
Expected change in happiness: Progress past & futureI06ab01Sequence of items, also classified as above ↑
Expected happiness Ladder:5 years henceH04aa03aIn the near future (up to 5 years)
Expected happiness Ladder:5 years henceI06ab01Sequence of items, also classified as above ↑
Family life cycleF02aaFamily career (family life-cycle)
Feelings about life as a wholeL04afMixed multiple life-appraisals
Highest overall happiness: Ladder bestH04aa01dExtremes of happiness experienced
Highest overall happiness: Ladder bestI06ab01Sequence of items, also classified as above ↑
IncomeI01abCurrent income level (unspecified)
Interviewer rating of life satisfactionH07aa01nO-DT by O-further
Interviewer rating of life satisfactionH07aa01qO-further by O-further, also classified as above ↑
Interviewer rating of life satisfactionH07aa03nO-further by C-BW, also classified as above ↑
Interviewer rating of life satisfactionH09ab04Rating of happiness by interviewer, also classified as above ↑
Lowest overall happiness: Ladder: worstH04aa01dExtremes of happiness experienced
Lowest overall happiness: Ladder: worstI06ab01Sequence of items, also classified as above ↑
Male sexG01aaSex (male vs female)
Overall compared to others: Circles:R-othersH11ab03cPerceived difference with own happiness
Overall compared to others: Circles:R-othersI06ab01Sequence of items, also classified as above ↑
Overall happiness Circles: whole lifeH07aa01nO-DT by O-further
Overall happiness Circles: whole lifeH07aa03nO-further by C-BW, also classified as above ↑
Overall happiness Circles: whole lifeI06ab01Sequence of items, also classified as above ↑
Overall happiness Life 3H07aa01lO-DT by O-DT
Overall happiness Life 3I06ab01Sequence of items, also classified as above ↑
Overall happiness: Ladder: mostH07aa03iO-DT by C-BW
Overall happiness: Ladder: mostI06ab01Sequence of items, also classified as above ↑
Past change in overall happiness: Past progressH04aa02aRecent change
Past change in overall happiness: Past progressI06ab01Sequence of items, also classified as above ↑
Past happiness: Ladder:5 years agoH04aa01aIn recent past
Past happiness: Ladder:5 years agoI06ab01Sequence of items, also classified as above ↑
Past years extremes: Ladder:best-worstH04aa01dExtremes of happiness experienced
Past years extremes: Ladder:best-worstI06ab01Sequence of items, also classified as above ↑
Perceived happiness of others: Circles: othersH11ab03aPerceived level of happiness of compatriots
Perceived happiness of others: Circles: othersI06ab01Sequence of items, also classified as above ↑
Satisfaction with acceptance by othersS02ag03Attitudes to own reputation
Satisfaction with achieving successL07ac03bRealization of employment goals
Satisfaction with adjustment to changes in lifeS02ae01bSatisfaction with own coping
Satisfaction with adjustment to changes in lifeC11ac01Satisfaction with own coping with life-change, also classified as above ↑
Satisfaction with amount of beautyL04ac01jInteresting (vs boring)
Satisfaction with amount of funL04ac01lPleasant (vs unpleasant)
Satisfaction with contribution to others lifeS11acAttitudes to own support behavior
Satisfaction with contribution to others lifeL04ac01kMeaningful (vs useless), also classified as above ↑
Satisfaction with contribution to others lifeS02ae02aSatisfaction with contributions to others, also classified as above ↑
Satisfaction with developing oneselfL07ac03cRealization of educational goals
Satisfaction with fair treatment by othersV03abAttitudes to value-climate
Satisfaction with fair treatment by othersN08ac01Satisfaction with fair treatment , also classified as above ↑
Satisfaction with financial securityI01af05cSatisfaction with financial security
Satisfaction with freedom from botherL04ac01dEasy (vs hard)
Satisfaction with independanceF05ac02Satisfaction with freedom
Satisfaction with interestingness of daily lifeL04ac01jInteresting (vs boring)
Satisfaction with neatnessL12ac02agSatisfaction with neatness of local streets
Satisfaction with one's sincerityS02ae01eSatisfaction with own morality
Satisfaction with one's toughnessS02ae01bSatisfaction with own coping
Satisfaction with oneselfS02aeCurrent satisfaction with self
Satisfaction with others sincerityV03abAttitudes to value-climate
Satisfaction with others sincerityN02ac01Satisfaction with moral climate , also classified as above ↑
Satisfaction with physical needs metI01af05fSatisfaction with physical needs met
Satisfaction with physical workA02ad04gSatisfaction with physical activity
Satisfaction with pressureL04ac01nRelaxed (vs stressful)
Satisfaction with religious faithR10af03Satisfaction with religion
Satisfaction with respect from othersS02ag03Attitudes to own reputation
Satisfaction with safetyL04ac01oSecure (vs threatened)
Satisfation with physical workA02ad04gSatisfaction with physical activity
Satsfaction with contribution to others lifeM05acSatisfaction with meaning
Social economic statusS09ab01'Objective' socio-economic status
Social economic statusS09acStatus consistency, also classified as above ↑
Status consistencyS05ab02aOver/under-achievement
Status consistencyS09acStatus consistency, also classified as above ↑
White raceE04ab03tEthnic status in the USA