Findings on happiness in Fernandez & Kulik (1981): study US 1973

Author(s)Fernandez, R.M.; Kulik, J.C.
TitleA Multilevel Model of Life Satisfaction: Effects of Individual Characteristics and Neighborhood Composition.
SourceAmerican Sociological Review, 1981, Vol. 46, 840 - 850
Public18+ aged, general public, USA, 1973-1974
Survey nameNot available
 Continuous National Surveys 1973 to 1974 (12 cycles) National Opinion Research Center (NORC)
SampleNot available
 Pooled probability multistage samples of 18+ aged inhabitants of the USA living in households
Respondents N =5916
Non Response?
AssesmentInterview: face-to-face
Happiness measure(s) used
Full textSelfreport on single question: 'How satisfied would you say you are with your life as a whole ....?' 4 completely satisfied 3 very satisfied 2 moderately satisfied 1 slightly satisfied 0 not satisfied at all
Author's labelLife-satisfaction
RemarksRange 0-4: M = 2.8 SD = .89 Transformed to range 0-10: Ms' = 7.1 When disattenuated for day to day noise (unreliability): M = 2.8, SD = 0.84
Error estimatesReliability: Retest reliablity over 8 month: r =+.43 This retest-coefficient is used for computing 'disattenuated' correlations (estimates of the true correlation if inaccuracy in report of happiness did not depress observed correlation) Validity: External congruent validity apparent in high multiple correlation with set of following variables: 1) satisfaction with: housing, neighborhood, finance, work and marriage 2) Bradburn's Affect Balance Scale (AFF 2.3) 3) direct question on happiness (HAP 1.1) R =.54
Finding used in
nation ranks
 On original range 0 - 4On range 0 - 10
Standard deviation0.89

Correlational findings

Author's labelSubject Code
Subject description
AgeA04abCurrent age (in years)
Cost of living in neighborhoodL12ab05bCosts of living in vinicity
Divorced/separatedM02ab01bVs divorced
EducationE01ab02Level of school-education
Family incomeI01ab03Household income
Family sizeH20ab03Number of persons in household
Health statusH14ab02aGlobal health rating
Inequality ratioL12ab03Income difference in vinicity
Inequality ratioL17ab01bSocial homogeneity in vinicity, also classified as above ↑
Joint effectsS15ab02Socio-demographic + environmental factors
Male sexG01aaSex (male vs female)
Married statusM02aa01Married vs never married
Racial composition of neighbourhoodL11ab02Ethnic diversity in vinicity
Racial composition of neighbourhoodL17ab01bSocial homogeneity in vinicity, also classified as above ↑
Relative ageL11ab01Age distribution in vinicity
Relative ageA04adRelative age, also classified as above ↑
Relative ageL17ab01bSocial homogeneity in vinicity, also classified as above ↑
Relative incomeI01ae02Relative to neighborhood
Relative incomeL17ab01bSocial homogeneity in vinicity, also classified as above ↑
Urban livingL13ab02Community size
White raceE04ab03tEthnic status in the USA