Findings on happiness in Ludwig (1971): study US 1966

Author(s)Ludwig, L.D.
TitleElation-Depression and Skill as Determinants of Desire for Excitement.
SourceUnpublished PhD Dissertation, University of Wisconsin, 1971, USA
PublicFemale students, undergraduates, University of Wisconsin, USA, 196?
 Year of data gathering not reported
Survey nameNot available
SampleNot available
 Students with previous acting experience in lead role, moderate perceived acting ability and non-depressed. Selected from a random sample of undergraduates from the University of Wisconsin Ss were paid. The large majority were freshmen and sophomores.
Respondents N =72
Non Response81%; 61% refusal, 5% eliminated on basis of screening data, 15% miscellaneous re
AssesmentMultiple methods
 Structured questionnaires, tests; and interview.
General remarksSame study partly reported in Ludwig L.D. Intra- and interindividual relationships between elation - depression and desire for exitement. Journal of Personality vol. 43, 1975, p. 1-22
Happiness measure(s) used
Full textSelfreport on 4 questions: "The following are statements of feelings or mood. Please read them over and then indicate which of these overall feelings best describes your feelings." A) Right now you feel ......... B) The best you felt today .... C) The worst you felt today ... D) The way you usually feel ... Response options: 10. Complete elations, rapturous joy, and soaring ecstasy. 9. Very elated and in very high spirits; tremendous delight and buoyancy. 8. Elated and in high spirits. 7. Feeling very good and cheerful. 6. Feeling pretty good, "OK". 5. Feeling a little bit low. Just so-so. 4. Spirits low and somewhat blue. 3. Depressed and feeling very low. Definitely blue. 2. Tremendously depressed. Feeling terrible, really miserable, "just awful". 1. Utter depression and gloom. Completely down. All is black and leaden. Wish it were all over. Summation: average scores on A,B,C,D. Name: Elation-Depression Scale (variant)
Author's labelTrait elation-depression.
Finding used in
nation ranks
 On original range 0 - 0On range 0 - 10
Standard deviation

Correlational findings

Author's labelSubject Code
Subject description
DepressionH12ac04aDepressive (f31-33)
Desire for excitement_AP05coSensation seeking
Desire for excitement_BP05coSensation seeking
Desire for participation in boring activitiesP05coSensation seeking
Desire for participation in social activitiesS07ac01Concern about organizational participation
Desire to participate in exciting activitiesP05coSensation seeking
Elated mood during experimentI05ab02Prior mood-manipulation
Number of leading roles played in a playP05at02Dominant behavior
Number of leading roles played in a playL02ab02Taking leading roles, also classified as above ↑
Numbering speedI03acCurrent specific mental abilities
Perceived acting abilityS02ab01Self-perceived ability
Self-esteemS02ad03bRelative superiority
Self-perceived creativity and maturityS02aa02Change in self-image
Self-perceived creativity and maturityS02ad03bRelative superiority, also classified as above ↑
Self-perceived creativity and maturityC12ab03Self-perceived creativeness, also classified as above ↑
Self-perceived creativity and maturityS02ab06Self-perceived maturity, also classified as above ↑
TranquillityM11ac13Feeling morally good (vs guilty)
Writing firmnessP05bcFortuitous
Writing firmnessE05ab01cWriting firmness, also classified as above ↑