Findings on happiness in Inglehart et al. (2008): study ZZ 1981

Author(s)Inglehart, R.; Foa, R.; Peterson, C.
TitleDevelopment, Freedom, and Rising Happiness.
SourcePerspectives on Psychological Science, 2008, Vol. 3, 264 - 285
Public18+ aged, general public, 52 nations, 1981-2007
 Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Chile, China, Colombia, Czech republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, East-Germany, West-germany, Hungary, Iceland, India, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Korea (south), Latvia, Lithunia, Malta, Mexico, Moldova, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nigeria, North Ireland, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slowakia, Slovenia, South Africa,, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdom, Uruguay, USA.
Survey nameNot available
 World Values Surveys 1981-2007.
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
 Probability samples within nations, non-probability sample of nations
Respondents N =72000
Non ResponseNot available
AssesmentInterview: face-to-face
Happiness measure(s) used
Full textSelfreport on single question: All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life as-a-whole these days? 1 dissatisfied 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 satisfied
Author's labelLife satisfaction
Page in publication267, 282-284
RemarksActual range: 3,73 (Moldova 1996) to 8,42 (Columbia 1998)
Finding used in
nation ranks

Full textSelfreport on single question: On the whole, how happy would you say you are.....? 4 very happy 3 fairly happy 2 not very happy 1 very unhappy
Author's labelHappiness
Page in publication267,282-284
RemarksScores reversed (in original 1 = very happy) Actual range: 1,40 (Moldova 1996) to 2,58 (Nigeria 2000)
Finding used in
nation ranks

Full textSelfreport on two questions: A Taking all together, how happy would you say you are? 4 very happy 3 quite happy 2 not very happy 1 not at all happy B All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life as-a-whole now? 10 satisfied 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 dissatisfied Computation: (Ax2,5) +B -10 Name: Inglehart's combined score
Page in publication267, 282-284
RemarksComputation: (O-SLW/c/sq/n/10/a) minus (2,5 x answer on O-HL/u/sq/v/4/b). Range: If 100% of its people were very happy and extremely satisfied a country would get the maximum score of 7,5 (=10 - 2,5 x 1). Minimum score is -9 (1-2,5 x 4). Actual range 1981-2007: -2,78 (Moldova 1996) to +4,48 (Mexico 2005)
Finding used in
nation ranks

Correlational findings

Author's labelSubject Code
Subject description
(Change in) National prideN01aa02Change in attitudes to one's nation
(Change in) democracyN12ab04Political democracy in nation
(Change in) GDP per capita (in PPP/pc)N04ab01bPurchasing power (`real' gnp pc)
(Change in) Sense of free choiceN14ab02Freedom in nations
(Change in) Strength of religiosityN02ab04Religiousness
(Change in) Tolerance of outgroupsN11ab27Modal tolerance
Change average happinessE03ab01aTrend in general public
Summed effects on change in happinessN14ab08Summed nation characteristics
Summed effects on levels of happinessN14ab08Summed nation characteristics