Findings on happiness in Bjornskov et al. (2010): study ZZ 1981

Author(s)Bjornskov, C.; Dreher, A.; Fischer, J.A.
TitleFormal Institutions and Subjective Well-Being: Revisiting the Cross-Country Evidence.
SourceEuropean Journal of Political Economy, 2010, Vol. 26, 419 -430
Public18+ aged, general public, 55 nations, 1981-2004
 Albania, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Chile, China, Colombia, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Estonia, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Korea (South), Latvia, Lithunia, Luxembourg, Malta, Mexico, Moldova, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Peru, Poland, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Romania, Russia, Singapore, Slowakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, United Kingdom, Uruguay, USA, Venezuela.
Survey nameNot available
 World Value Survey's 1981-1984; 1989-1993; 1994-1999; 1999-2004.
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
 Non-probability sampling of 55 nations, probability sample within nations.
Respondents N =135000
Non ResponseNot available
AssesmentInterview: face-to-face
Happiness measure(s) used
Full textSelfreport on single question: All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life as-a-whole these days? 1 dissatisfied 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 satisfied
Page in publication8, 30
RemarksA. Average in 136 samples in 55 nations is 6,867 B. Average % of scores 8, 9 and 10 in 130 samples in 55 nations is 46,981, SD = 19,159 Correlation A and B is +.94.
Finding used in
nation ranks
 On original range 1 - 10On range 0 - 10
Standard deviation

Correlational findings

Author's labelSubject Code
Subject description
Average membershipN14ab03cSocial cohesion in nation
Belief in GodN02ab04Religion in nation
Communist pastN12NATION: POLITICS
Democratic processN12ab04Political democracy in nation
Democratic processN12ab05bPolitical violence in nation, also classified as above ↑
Divorce rateN14ab03baDivorce rate in nation
Gastil IndexN07ab03Human-rights protection in nation
Gastil IndexN14ab01bPolitical freedom in nation, also classified as above ↑
Honest and efficient governmentN12ab07Quality of government in nation
Investment price levelN04acStandard of living in the nation
Legal qualityN07NATION: JUSTICE
Openness to tradeN04ab07Openness of economy in nation
Political constraints III and VN12ab04Political democracy in nation
Polity IV indexN12ab04Political democracy in nation
Social trustN11ab31aTrust in fellow-man in nation
Summed effects of current conditionsN14ab09Summed nation characteristics
Unemployment rateN04ab02bUnemployment in nation