Findings on happiness in Hessami (2010): study ZZ Western Europe 1990

Author(s)Hessami, Z.
TitleThe Size and Composition of Government Spending in Europe and its Impact of Well-Being.
SourceKyklos, 2010, Vol. 63, 346 - 382
Public18+ aged, general public, 12 European nations, 1990-2000
 Denmark, Netherlands, Luxembourg, Sweden, Ireland, United Kingdom, Austria, Finland, Belgium, Germany, Italy, France.
Survey nameNot available
 Eurobarometer Survey Series.
SampleProbability stratified sample
Respondents N =153268
Non ResponseNot available
AssesmentInterview: face-to-face
Happiness measure(s) used
Full textSelfreport on single question: On the whole how satisfied are you with the life you lead? 4 very satisfied 3 fairly satisfied 2 not very satisfied 1 not at all satisfied - Don't know
Author's labelLife-satisfaction
Page in publication11
Remarks% very satisfied people in a nation used as dependent variable; actual range in mid-90s: below 20 (France, Germany and Italy) to above 60 (Denmark).
Finding used in
nation ranks

Correlational findings

Author's labelSubject Code
Subject description
AgeA04abCurrent age (in years)
EducationE01ab02Level of school-education
Education expendituresN04ab13abPublic education in nation
Enployment statusE02abCurrent employment status
Government ExpendituresN12ab08bGovernment expenditures
Government ExpendituresN12ab08Size of government, also classified as above ↑
Health expendituresN04ab13acPublic health in nation
Ideological preferencesP09ad01Preference for: left vs right wing
Inflation rateN04ab04Inflation in nation
MaleG01aaSex (male vs female)
Marital statusM02aaMarried state (compared to non-married states)
Number of childrenC03ab01Number of children
Relative incomeI01ae03Relative to nation
Social protection expendituresN04ab13aeSocial security in nation
Unemployment rateN04ab05Unemployment in nation