Findings on happiness in Constantinople (1965): study US 1965

Author(s)Constantinople, A.P.
TitleSome Correlates of Happiness and Unhappiness in College Students.
SourceUnpublished Doctoral Dissertation, 1965, University of Rochester, USA
PublicCollege students, University of Rochester, USA, 196?
Collect period3
Survey nameNot available
SampleNot available
 Non-probability chunk sample of undergraduate students recruited from classes of students from 10 departments of the University of Rochester. 513 males : 150 freshmen, 126 sophomores, 133 juniors, 104 seniors. 439 females: 124 freshmen, 120 sophomores, 98 juniors, 115 seniors.
Respondents N =952
Non Response30% (take home questionnaire).
AssesmentQuestionnaire: paper
 Questionnaires completed in c lass and at home
General remarksSame study also reported in CONST 1967, ORTE 1967, 1972. Data also reported in Constantinople, A: 'Perceived instrumentality of the college as a measure of attitudes towards college'. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1967 vol.5 p.196-201
Happiness measure(s) used
Full textSelfreport on single question: In thinking over the past year, indicate how elated or depressed, happy or unhappy you have felt in the last year? 10 Complete elation, rapturous joy and soaring ecstacy 9 Very elated and in very high spirits. Tremendous delight and buoyancy. 8 Elated and in high spirits. 7 Feeling very good and cheerful. 6 Feeling pretty good , "OK". 5 Feeling a little bit low. Just so-so. 4 Spirits low and somewhat "blue". 3 Depressed and feeling very low. Definitely "blue". 2 Tremendously depressed. Feeling terrible, really miserable, "just awful". 1 Utter depression and gloom. Completely down. All is black and leaden. Wish it were all over.
Author's labelHappiness.
Error estimatesReliability: Retest-reliability: In pilot study (N = 152): r=+.85 between two administrations of the scale occurring two weeks apart. Validity: Congruent validity: In pilot study (N=152) correlations of the instrument with the Nowlis (1965) MACL surgency plus Elation factors administered 4 times were +.30 for males and +.48 for females. In the same pilot study correlations with the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability scale were +.02 (ns) for males and +.20 (ns) for females.
Finding used in
nation ranks
 On original range 1 - 10On range 0 - 10
Standard deviation

Correlational findings

Author's labelSubject Code
Subject description
Academic status (discrepancy betweenaptitude and achiev.S01ac02School-success
Academic status_AS01ac02School-success
Academic status_BI03ac07Verbal ability
Academic status_CI03ac07Verbal ability
Attitude toward collegeS01af02Perceived usefulness of schooling
Companionship vs being isolatedM15ac05Feeling close (vs remote)
Energy vs fatigueM15ac06Feeling energetic (vs lethargic, tired)
Fullness vs emptiness of lifeM15ac09Feeling full (vs empty)
Harmony vs angerM15ac08Feeling friendly (vs hostile)
Impulse expression vs self-restraintM15ac07aFeeling free from inner restraints
Love and sexL19ab02Love-feelings
Male sexG01aaSex (male vs female)
Personal freedom vs external constraintM15ac07bFeeling free from external restraints
Personal moral judgmentM15ac13Feeling morally good (vs guilty)
Present workW05ad01Satisfaction with work-as-a-whole
Psycho-social developmentP03abCurrent stage of development
Receptivity to the worldM15ac10bFeeling receptive
Satisfaction with universityS01af05aSatisfaction with school-facilities
Self-confidenceM15ac12Feeling self-confident (vs inadequate)
Sociability vs withdrawalM15ac05cFeeling sociable (vs withdrawn)
Social respect vs social contemptM15ac14Feeling respectable (vs rejected)
Stage of studyS01aa03Current stage in school-career
Thought processesM15ac03Feeling clear (vs dull, confused)
Tranquility vs anxietyM15ac15Feeling tranquil (vs restless)