Findings on happiness in Emmons & McCullough (2003): study US 1998 /2

Author(s)Emmons, R.A.; McCullough, M.E.
TitleCounting Blessings versus Burdens: an Experimental Investigation of Gratitude and Subjective Well-Being in Daily Life.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2003, Vol. 84, 377 - 389
PublicStudents, participating in a gratitude excercise, USA, 1998
 166 undergraduate students, 125 women, 41 men.
Survey nameUnnamed study
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
 Students participated to fulfill the experiental learning component of the course.
Respondents N =166
Non ResponseNot available
General remarksStudy 2 of 3 studies; p. 381. Year of study not reported. Assumend 1998
Happiness measure(s) used
Full textSelfreport on 30 questions repeated 14 days To what extent did you feel today,, A interested B distressed C excited D alert E iritable F sad G stressed H ashamed I happy J grateful K tired L upset O strong P nervous Q guilty R joyful S determined T thankful U calm V attentive X forgiving Y hostile Z energetic Aa hopeful Ab enthusiastictic Ac active Ad afraid Ae,proud Af appreciative Ag angry Rated 1 not at all 2 3 4 5 very much Computation: (A+C+D+I+G+J+O+R+S+T+U+V+X+Z+Aa+Ab+Ac+AF)/17 - (B+E+F+G+H_+K+L+P+Q+Y+Ad+AG)/13
Author's labelMood
Page in publication379
RemarksAverage scores for positive and negative affect calculated using factor analysis.
Finding used in
nation ranks

Correlational findings

Author's labelSubject Code
Subject description
Counting blessings, hassles, and social comparison.P03aa02eChange in thankfulness
Counting blessings, hassles, and social comparison.H16ac05Effects of happiness-training, also classified as above ↑
Counting blessings, hassles, and social comparison.H16ac11Effects of social skill training, also classified as above ↑