Findings on happiness in Sheldon et al. (2013): study US Missouri 2011

Author(s)Sheldon, K.M.; Boehm, J.K.; Lyubomirsky, S.
TitleVariety is the Spice of Happiness: The Hedonic Adaptation Prevention Model.
SourceDavid, S. A.; Boniwell, I.; Ayers, A. C.; Eds: "The Oxford Handbook of Happiness", Oxford University Press, 2013, Oxford, UK, 901 - 914
PublicStudents actively participating in happiness training, USA, 201?
 University of Missouri, 72% female
Survey nameUnnamed study
SampleNon-probability self-selected
 After baseline assessment students were randomly assigned to (A) activity change intervention or (B) circumstance change intervention
Respondents N =79
 initial sample n = 134, analyses restricted to n = 79. Participants who did not make the intended change (n = 55) were excluded from the analyses.
Non ResponseNot available
AssesmentQuestionnaire: web
 Instructions and first assessment in laboratary, follow-up questionnaire online
General remarksYear of data gathering not reported, assumed 2011
Happiness measure(s) used
Full textSelfreport on 20 questions. This scale consists of a number of words that describe different feelings and emotions. Read each item and mark the appropriate answer in the space next to that word. Indicate to what extend you felt this way during the past week?: A nervous B distressed C afraid D jittery E irritable F upset G scared H exiled I ashamed J guilty K hostile L active M determined N inspired O enthusiastic P alert Q attentive R proud S strong T interested Answer options: 1 very slightly or not at all 2 a little 3 moderately 4 quite a bit 5 extremely Negative affect score (NAS): A to K Positive affect score (PAS): L to T Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS - NAS Name: Watson et al's PANAS ('past week' version)
Author's labelAffect Balance
Page in publication909
RemarksBaseline score, both intervention groups combined. Scale range -4 to +4
Finding used in
nation ranks
 On original range -40 - 40On range 0 - 10
Standard deviation

Correlational findings

Author's labelSubject Code
Subject description
Activity change or circumstance change interventionH16ac05Effects of happiness-training
Activity change or circumstance change interventionL04ac01rVaried, also classified as above ↑