Findings on happiness in Clum & Clum (1973): study US 1971

Author(s)Clum, G.A.; Clum, J.
TitleChoice of Defense Mechanisms and Their Relationship to Mood Level
SourcePsychological Reports, 1973, Vol. 32, 507 - 510
PublicUndergrates, San Diego State College, USA, 197?
 Year of datagathering not reported
Survey nameNot available
SampleNot available
 Non-probability chunk sample. 23 males : mean age 22 32 females : mean age 24
Respondents N =55
Non ResponseNot available
AssesmentQuestionnaire: paper
Happiness measure(s) used
Full textSelfreport on single question, answered every evening before retiring during six weeks (experience sampling) "On average; how elated or depressed, happy or unhappy you felt today....? 10 Complete elation, rapturous joy and soaring ecstasy 9 Very elated and in very high spirits. Tremendous delight and buoyancy 8 Elated and in high spirits 7 Feeling very good and cheerful 6 Feeling pretty good , "OK" 5 Feeling a little bit low. Just so-so 4 Spirits low and somewhat 'blue' 3 Depressed and feeling very low. Definitely 'blue' 2 Tremendously depressed. Feeling terrible, really miserable, "just awful" 1 Utter depression and gloom. Completely down. All is black and leaden. Wish it were all over. Name: Wessman & Ricks' `Elation - depression scale'
Author's labelMood
Finding used in
nation ranks

Correlational findings

Author's labelSubject Code
Subject description
Defense mechanismsP05atDefensive