Findings on happiness in Luhmann et al. (2014): study US 2013

Author(s)Luhmann, M.; Cacioppo, J.T.; Hawkley, L.C.
TitleThinking about One's Subjective Well-Being: Average Trends and Individual Differences.
SourceJournall of Happiness Studies, 2014, Vol. 15, 757 - 781
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s10902-013-9448-5
Public18-79 aged, general public, USA, 2013
 Sex: 36.0% male, 64.0 % female Predominantly non-Hispanic whites (76.8%) Mean age 35.0 (18-79)
Collect period2013
Survey nameNot available
 Own survey
SampleNon-probability accidental sample
 Participants recruited through Amazon Mechanical Turk, an online platform. After completing the personality measures the respondents were randomly assigned to complete either a life satisfaction measure or an affect measure. After that the respondents listed the things or events they had been thinking about when answering the happiness questions. Next, they completed the life satisfaction measure if they had previously answered the affect measure and vice versa.
Respondents N =414
Non ResponseNot available
AssesmentQuestionnaire: web
Happiness measure(s) used
Full textSelfreport on 20 questions. This scale consists of a number of words that describe different feelings and emotions. Read each item and mark the appropriate answer in the space next to that word. Indicate to what extend you generally feel this way, that is, how you feel on average? A nervous B distressed C afraid D jittery E irritable F upset G scared H exiled I ashamed J guilty K hostile L active M determined N inspired O enthusiastic P alert Q attentive R proud S strong T interested Answer options: 1 very slightly or not at all 2 a little 3 moderately 4 quite a bit 5 very much Negative affect score (NAS): A to K Positive affect score (PAS): L to T Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS - NAS Name: Watson et al's PANAS ('in general' version)
Author's labelHappiness
Page in publication764
RemarksABS computed by WDH-team from Positive Affect and Negative Affect Scores
Finding used in
nation ranks
 On original range -4 - 4On range 0 - 10
Standard deviation

Correlational findings

Author's labelSubject Code
Subject description
Valence of thoughs when answering question on happinessV02aa01aHappiness, pleasure (hedonic values)
Valence of thoughs when answering question on happinessH11ab02aPerceived sources of one's own happiness, also classified as above ↑