Findings on happiness in Veenhoven & Kalmijn (2005): study ZZ 1990

Author(s)Veenhoven, R.; Kalmijn, W.M.
TitleInequality-Adjusted Happiness in Nations. Egalitatianism and Utilitarianism Married in a New Index of Social Performance.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2005, Vol. 6, 421 - 455
PublicAdults, general public, 90 nations, 1990s
 Albania, Algeria, Angola (4), Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, Bolivia (4), Bosnia, Brazil, Britain, Bulgaria ,Canada, Chile, China (1), Colombia (5), Croatia, Cyprus, Czechia, Denmark, Dominican Republic, Egypt, El Salvador, Estonia, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Ghana(4), Greece, Guatemala (4), Honduras (4), Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Ivory Coast (4), Japan, Jordan, Kenya (4), Kuwait (4), Kyrgezigstan, Latvia, Lebanon(4), Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macedonia, Mali (4), Malta, Mexico, Moldova, Montenegro, Morocco, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Senegal (4), Serbia, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, South-Africa, South-Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Turkey, Uganda, Ukraine, Uruguay, USA, Uzbekistan (4), Venezuela, Vietnam, Zimbabwe
Survey nameNot available
 Data on happiness taken from: World Database of Happiness, collection Happiness in Nations
SampleMixed samples
 Non probability sample of nations, probability samples within nations
Respondents N =90000
 Sample sizes vary between 1000 and 2000 per nation
Non ResponseNot available
AssesmentInterview: face-to-face
Happiness measure(s) used
Full textSelf report on single question: Various questions on overall satisfaction with life as a whole. Scores transformed to scale 0-10
Author's labelhappiness
Finding used in
nation ranks

Correlational findings

Author's labelSubject Code
Subject description
Discrimination of womenN14ab01cGender inequality (women emancipation)
Disparity in incomesN14ab01dIncome inequality
Economic freedomN14ab02cEconomic freedom
Economic freedomN04ab13Socio-economic regime in the nation, also classified as above ↑
Lethal accidentsN14ab05aLethal accicidents
Personal freedomN14ab02aPrivate freedom in nations
Political freedomN12NATION: POLITICS
Political freedomN14ab02bPolitical freedom, also classified as above ↑
Purchasing power per headN09ab01eInequality in apparent livability
Purchasing power per headH05abInequality of happiness in nations, also classified as above ↑
Purchasing power per headN04ab01bPurchasing power (`real' gnp pc), also classified as above ↑
Respect of civil rightsN08ab03Human-rights protection
Respect of civil rightsN14ab02bPolitical freedom, also classified as above ↑
Social securityN04ab13aeSocial security in nation
ToleranceN11ab27Modal tolerance
ToleranceN02ab06Value climate in the nation, also classified as above ↑
Trust in peopleN11ab28aTrust in fellow-man
Voluntary workN14ab03cSocial cohesion in nation