Findings on happiness in Lewis et al. (1997): study GB 1995

Author(s)Lewis, C.A.; DeFockert, J.; Joseph, S.; Lanigan, C.
TitleReligiosity and Happiness: No Evidence for an Association among Undergraduates.
SourcePersonality and Individual Diffrences, 1997, Vol. 22. 119 - 121
PublicUniversity students, Northern Ireland, 1995.
 Full time undergraduate students of Ulster University at Londonderry. 68 males and 86 females
Survey nameNot available
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Respondents N =154
Non Response0
AssesmentQuestionnaire: paper
 Questionnaire completed in class
Happiness measure(s) used
Full textSelfreport on 25 questions: A number of statements that people have used to describe how they feel are given below. Read each one and circle the number that best describes how frequently that statement was true for you in the past seven days, including today. Some statements describe positive feelings and some describe negative feelings. You may have experienced both positive and negative feelings at different times in the past week. A I felt sad B I felt I had failed as a person C I felt dissatisfied with my life D I felt mentally alert E I felt disappointed with myself F I felt cheerful G I felt life wasn't worth living H I felt satisfied with my life I I felt healthy J I felt life crying K I felt I had been successful L I felt happy M I felt I couldn't make decisions N I felt unattractive O I felt optimistic about the future P I felt life was rewording Q I felt cheerless R I felt life has a purpose S I felt too tired to do anything T I felt pleased with the way I am U I felt lethargic V I found it easy to make decisions W I felt life was enjoyable X I felt life was meaningless Y I felt run down Answer options: 0 never 1 rarely 2 sometimes 3 often Negative affect score (NAS): A, B, C, E, G, J, M, N, Q, S, U, X, Y. Positive affect score (PAS): D, F, H, I, K, L, O, P, R, T, V, W. Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS - NAS + 39 Name: McGreal & Joseph 'Depression-Happiness Scale' (DHS)
Error estimatesCronbach alpha 0,85
Finding used in
nation ranks
 On original range 0 - 75On range 0 - 10
Standard deviation10.76

Correlational findings

Author's labelSubject Code
Subject description
ReligiostyR12abCurrent religious beliefs
Satisfaction With Life scaleL04ahHappiness inventories involving unacceptable items