Findings on happiness in Hills et al. (2015): study ZZ Europe 1973

Author(s)Hills, T.; Proto, E.; Sgroi, D.
TitleHistorical Analysis of National Subjective Wellbeing Using Millions of Digitized Books.
SourceIZA Discussion Paper. 2015, No. 9195< Warwick, Uk
Public15+ aged, general public, 5 EU nations, 1973-2009
Last assesment2009
Survey nameEU-Eurobarometer combined waves
 Years 1973-2009
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Respondents N =119
 N: See p. 12, Table 1. Life satisfaction: N=190. 119 year/nation observations of average happiness.
Non ResponseNot available
AssesmentInterview: face-to-face
Happiness measure(s) used
Full textSelfreport on single question: On the whole how satisfied are you with the life you lead? 4 very satisfied 3 fairly satisfied 2 not very satisfied 1 not at all satisfied - Don't know
Author's labelLife satisfaction
Page in publication12
Finding used in
nation ranks
 On original range 1 - 4On range 0 - 10
Standard deviation0.18

Correlational findings

Author's labelSubject Code
Subject description
Valence of words used in booksV03aaActual value-climate
Valence of words used in booksN02ab01Attitudinal climate in nation, also classified as above ↑
Valence of words used in booksN02ab03Mass media in nation, also classified as above ↑
Valence of words used in booksN11ab26Optimism in nation, also classified as above ↑