Findings on happiness in Wessman & Ricks (1966): study US 1957

Author(s)Wessman, A.E.; Ricks, D.F.
TitleMood and Personality.
SourceHolt, Rinehart and Wilson, 1966, New York, USA
PublicFemale college students, Radcliff USA, followed 6 weeks, 1957
Survey nameNot available
SampleNot available
 Non-probability accidental sample of volunteers. Participant were above average in academic performance and in qualities of being introspective, self-aware and articulate.
Respondents N =21
Non Response16%
 Mood diary kept 30 days.
General remarksSame study reported in WESSM 1960.
Happiness measure(s) used
Full textSelfreport on single question, answered every evening before retiring during six weeks (experience sampling) "On average; how elated or depressed, happy or unhappy you felt today....? 10 Complete elation, rapturous joy and soaring ecstasy 9 Very elated and in very high spirits. Tremendous delight and buoyancy 8 Elated and in high spirits 7 Feeling very good and cheerful 6 Feeling pretty good , "OK" 5 Feeling a little bit low. Just so-so 4 Spirits low and somewhat 'blue' 3 Depressed and feeling very low. Definitely 'blue' 2 Tremendously depressed. Feeling terrible, really miserable, "just awful" 1 Utter depression and gloom. Completely down. All is black and leaden. Wish it were all over. Name: Wessman & Ricks' `Elation - depression scale'
Author's labelHedonic level
Finding used in
nation ranks
 On original range 1 - 10On range 0 - 10
Standard deviation0.98

Correlational findings

Author's labelSubject Code
Subject description
Affective complexityA03ab01Complexity of affect-pattern
Energy vs fatigueM15ac06Feeling energetic (vs lethargic, tired)
Fulness vs emptinessof lifeM15ac09Feeling full (vs empty)
Harmony vs angerM15ac08Feeling friendly (vs hostile)
Hedonic level of most depressed momentsA03ab04Intensity of affects
Hedonic level of most elated momentsA03ab04Intensity of affects
Love and sexM15ac05bFeeling love (vs not)
Own sociability (vs withdrawal)M15ac05cFeeling sociable (vs withdrawn)
Personal moral judgementM15ac13Feeling morally good (vs guilty)
Physical healthH14ab02eFeeling healthy
Present workW05ad01Satisfaction with work-as-a-whole
Pressure of academicworkD01abCurrent hassles
Pressure of academicworkS01af03Perceived pressure of school-work, also classified as above ↑
Receptivity towards the worldM15ac10bFeeling receptive
Thought processesM15ac03Feeling clear (vs dull, confused)
Tranquility vs anxietyM15ac15Feeling tranquil (vs restless)