Findings on happiness in Tsai (2009): study ZZ World samples 1990

Author(s)Tsai, M.C.
TitleMarket Openness, Transition Economies and Subjective Wellbeing.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2009, Vol. 10, 523 - 539
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s10902-008-9107-4
Public18+ aged, 76 countries, 1990s
Last assesment1999
Survey nameWorldValuesSurvey 1-3
 Averages taken from the World Database of Happiness.
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Respondents N =80000
 Estimated based on information in the paper.
Non ResponseNot available
AssesmentInterview: face-to-face
Happiness measure(s) used
Full textSelfreport on single question: All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life as-a-whole these days? 1 dissatisfied 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 satisfied
Author's labelLife satisfaction
Page in publication527
Finding used in
nation ranks
 On original range 1 - 10On range 0 - 10
Standard deviation0.800.89

Full textSelfreport on single question: Are you happy or unhappy? 1 unhappy 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 happy
Author's labelHappiness
Page in publication527
RemarksOriginally on a 4 step scale, transformed to range 1-10.
Finding used in
nation ranks
 On original range 1 - 10On range 0 - 10
Standard deviation1.151.28

Correlational findings

Author's labelSubject Code
Subject description
Average tariffN04ab07Openness of economy in nation
Black market premiumN04ab08Informal economy, black market in nation
Change in openness dummyN04ab07Openness of economy in nation
Eastern Europe dummyN13ab02Geographic location
Export marketing boardN04ab07Openness of economy in nation
Export marketing boardN04ab13bState control of economy in nation, also classified as above ↑
GDP growth rateN04aa02aEconomic growth/decline in nation
GNI per capitaN04ab01aGnp per capita (raw)
InflationN04ab04Inflation in nation
Latin America dummyN13ab02Geographic location
Militarism indexN12ab06aDefense-spending
OpennessN14ab02cEconomic freedom
OpennessN04ab07Openness of economy in nation, also classified as above ↑
Years of opennessN04ab07Openness of economy in nation