Findings on happiness in Costa et al. (1987a): study US 1971 /1

Author(s)Costa, P.T.; McCrae, R.R.; Zonderman, A.B.
TitleLongitudinal Analyses of Psychological Well-Being in a National Sample: Stability of Mean Levels.
SourceJournal of Gerontology, 1987, Vol. 42, 50 - 55
Public25-74 aged, USA, samples in 1971-75 and 1981-84
Collect period4
Last assesment1975
 Study A: data gathered between April 1971 and Oktober 1975 Study B: data gathered between Januari 1981 and August 1984
Survey nameNot available
 National center for Health Statistics Survey (NHANES) Same study also reported in COSTA 1987/1 (longitudinal analysis of 1971 sample)
SampleProbability stratified sample
 Samples of 1-74 aged civilian population. Systematic oversampling of: women in childbearing age, elderly and poor 24+ aged selected from this sample.
Respondents N =11899
 1971-74 sample N = 6913, 1981-84 sample N = 4986
Non ResponseNot available
AssesmentQuestionnaire: paper
 A booklet completed by participants with help from interviewers if required.
Happiness measure(s) used
Full textSelf report on 8 questions A Have you been under or felt you were under any strain, stress or pressure during the past month? B Have you been anxious, worried, or upset during the past month? C Have you been feeling emotionally stable and sure of yourself, during the past month? D How relaxed or tense have you been during the past month? E How depressed or cheerful have you been, during the past month? F How have you been feeling in general during the past month? G How happy, satisfied or pleased have you been with your personal life, during the past month? H How much energy, pep, vitality have you felt, during the past month? Rating: 0-5 scale with verbally labeled response options Computation: (C+F+G+H) - (A+B+D+E) Name: Shortened General Wellbeing Schedule (GWB)
Author's labelGeneral well-being schedule
Page in publication50-521
RemarksAffect Balance (M) computed by WDH-staff, substracting Negative Affect from Positive Affect score SASQIA bereken M uit gewogen gemiddelden tabel 3 en 4
Finding used in
nation ranks

Correlational findings

Author's labelSubject Code
Subject description
Period (time sequentional analysis)A04abCurrent age (in years)
Period (time sequentional analysis)G01aaSex (male vs female), also classified as above ↑
Period (time sequentional analysis)E03ab01aTrend in general public, also classified as above ↑