Findings on happiness in Gundelach & Kreiner (2004): study ZZ Western Europe 1999

Publication
Author(s)Gundelach, P.; Kreiner, S.
TitleHappiness and Life Satisfaction in Advanced European Countries.
SourceCross-Cultural Research, 2004, Vol. 38, 359 - 386
DOIDOI: n10.1177/1069397104267483
Investigation
Public18 + aged, general public, 9 nations in Western Europe, 1999
 Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, Germany-East, Gemany-West, Iceland, Netherlands, Sweden
Survey nameNot available
 European Values Survey 1999
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
 Non-probability purposive sample of nations: all with high standard of living and social security. Probability samples within nations.
Respondents N =10517
 Austria = 1381, Belgium = 1897, Denmark = 1017, Finland = 1026, Germany-East = 982, Gemany-West = 1020, Iceland =1407, Netherlands = 999, Sweden = 1012
Non ResponseNot available
AssesmentInterview: face-to-face
 Iceland: face to face 74%; by phone 26% in remote areas.
Happiness measure(s) used
Full textSelfreport on single question: All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life as-a-whole these days? 1 dissatisfied 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 satisfied
ClassificationO-SLW-c-sq-n-10-a
Author's labelself-rated life satisfaction
Page in publication364
Finding used in
nation ranks
Yes

Full textSelfreport on single question: Taking all things together, would you say you are.....? 4 very happy 3 quite happy 2 not very happy 1 not at all happy.
ClassificationO-HL-u-sq-v-4-a
Author's labelself-rated happiness
Page in publication364, 374
RemarksNetherlands: M = 3,42 , SD = 0,57 Denmark: M = 3,40, SD = 0,58 Iceland: M = 3,32 , SD = 0,61 Belgium M = 3,34, SD = 0,65 Sweden M = 3,29, SD = 0,61 Austria M = 3,26, SD = 0,65 Finland M = 3,14, SD = 0,59 West-Germany M = 3,05, SD = 0,59 East-Germany M = 2,95, SD = 0,7
Finding used in
nation ranks
Yes

Correlational findings

Author's labelSubject Code
Finding
Subject description
Country of residenceN10abCurrent nation of residence
HappinessH07aa01bO-HL by O-SL
Household incomeI01ab03Household income
Living in a stable relationshipH20ab01Living alone or not
Living in a stable relationshipM02aaMarried state (compared to non-married states), also classified as above ↑
Norm for expressing extreme opinionsN09ab01Apparent average livability
Norm for expressing extreme opinionsN11ab10Modal extremety, also classified as above ↑
Perceived freedom and control in lifeF05ab03aAmount of restrictions perceived
Perceived freedom and control in lifeP05bpInner locus of control, also classified as above ↑
Personal ties in countryN14ab03Intimate relations in nation
Social capital in countryN14ab03cSocial cohesion in nation
Social stigma attached to being singleH20ad01Attitude to living alone
Social stigma attached to being singleH11ab03bPerceived level of happiness of specific social categories, also classified as above ↑
Social stigma attached to being singleN02ab06Value climate in the nation, also classified as above ↑
Spending time with friendsF06acCurrent contacts with friends