Findings on happiness in Hernandez Plaza et al. (2004): study ES 2000

Author(s)Hernandez Plaza, S.; Alonso Morillejo, E.; Pozo Munoz, C.
TitleApoyo Social y Bienstar Subjetivo en un Collectivo de Immigrantes. Efectos Directos o Amortiguadores. ( Social Support and Social Well-Being in a Group of Immigrants: Direct or Buffer Effects?)
SourceBoletin de Psicologia, 2004, Vol. 80, 79 - 96
PublicMoroccan immigrants, Spain, 2000
 Gender: 83% male, 17% female Age: 25% 18-24, 70% 25-44, 5% 45-65 years old Area of residence (in the province of Almería): 49% El Ejido, 16% Níjar, 10% Almería (city), 10% Vícar, 9% Roquetas de Mar, 6% La Mojonera Civil status: 62% single, 36% married or lived with a partner, 2% separated or divorced Level of education: 20% illiterate, 38% primary studies, 23% secondary studies 19% university studies Time living in the country: 30% less than 2 years, 50% between 2 and 6 years 20% more than 6 years
Collect period5-10
Survey nameNot available
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
 Non-probabilistic stratified quota sampling was used to select participants, with gender, age and area of residence as stratifying variables, according to the distribution of these variables in the total population (data source: Foreign Office in Almeria). A snowball procedure was used to access the sample
Respondents N =100
Non ResponseNot available
AssesmentInterview: face-to-face
 Face to face interviews were conducted by the first author of this article, with the collaboration of seven Moroccan mediators who translated the questions into Arabic when necessary and gave access to the sample
General remarksThe original article is based in the complete shortened version of the Life Satisfaction Scale (Diener, Emmons, Larsen & Griffin, 1985). Additional results have been provided by the first author (Hernández Plaza, S.), excluding item 5 of the scale.
Happiness measure(s) used
Full textSelfreport on four questions: Using the 1-5 scale below, indicate your agreement with each of the items by placing the appropriate number on the line preceding that item. Please be open and honest in your responding. A In most ways my life is close to ideal B The conditions of my life are excellent C I am satisfied with my life D So far, I have gotten the important things I want in life Answers rated: 5 strongly agree 4 slightly agree 3 neither agree nor disagree 2 slightly disagree 1 strongly disagree Computation: A+B+C+D divided by 4 Name: Shortened Diener's Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) (In the original scale item 5 reads: 'If I could live my life over, I would change nothing'. This item is left out in this selection because a positive answer to this question does not necessarily mean that the respondent doesn't like the life he/she actually lives.)
Author's labelSubjective well-being
Page in publication84
RemarksSpanish version of the Shortened Diener's Satisfaction with Life Scale, blindly back translated from English to Spanish by Goodwin and Hernandez (2000)
Error estimatesCronbach's alpha=0.80
Finding used in
nation ranks
 On original range 4 - 20On range 0 - 10
Standard deviation0.85

Correlational findings

Author's labelSubject Code
Subject description
Housing typeH22ab03Quality of current dwelling
Labour situationE02abCurrent employment status
Legal situationM07ab01Migration conditions
Perception of rejectionP09af01Attitudes to ethnic discrimination
Satistaction with social supportS10ac03Satisfaction with social support received
Social network sizeS10ab02Sources of current support