Findings on happiness in Lönnqvist et al. (2015): study ZZ Northern Europe 2008

Author(s)Lönnqvist, J.E.; Jasinskaja-Lathi, I; Leikas, S.; Mähönen, T.A.
TitleThe Mixed Blessings of Migration. Life Satisfaction and Self-Esteem over the Course of Migration.
SourceEuropean Journal of Social Psychology, 2015, Vol. 45, 496 - 514
PublicRussian Diaspora migrants, Russia to Finland, followed 4 years, 2008-2013
Last assesment2013
 T0: April/May 2008 (approximately a year before migration), T1: October 2009/April 2010 (approximately half a year after migration), T2: December 2011/April 2012 (approximately two years after migration), T3: September 2012/January 2013 (approximately three years after migration)
Survey nameINPRES
 Last wave was part of the 'Longitudinal Analysis of diaspora migration from Russia to Finland' (LADA)
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
 Sample collected at Finnish language courses that were part of the immigration training program organized by the Finnish authorities is Russia.
Respondents N =85
 T0: N=225, T1: N=155, T2: N=133, T3: N=85
Non Response62%
AssesmentQuestionnaire: paper
Happiness measure(s) used
Full textSelfreport on four questions: Using the 1-5 scale below, indicate your agreement with each of the items by placing the appropriate number on the line preceding that item. Please be open and honest in your responding. A In most ways my life is close to ideal B The conditions of my life are excellent C I am satisfied with my life D So far, I have gotten the important things I want in life Answers rated: 5 strongly agree 4 slightly agree 3 neither agree nor disagree 2 slightly disagree 1 strongly disagree Computation: A+B+C+D divided by 4 Name: Shortened Diener's Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) (In the original scale item 5 reads: 'If I could live my life over, I would change nothing'. This item is left out in this selection because a positive answer to this question does not necessarily mean that the respondent doesn't like the life he/she actually lives.)
Author's labelLife satisfaction
Page in publication11, 34
RemarksOwn calculation of average T0 to T4.
Finding used in
nation ranks
 On original range 4 - 20On range 0 - 10
Standard deviation

Correlational findings

Author's labelSubject Code
Subject description
Acculturative stressP14ab01Amount of problems perceived
Acculturative stressM09ab02Integration in new community, also classified as above ↑
Adaptation difficultiesM09ab02Integration in new community
Adaptation difficultiesP14ab02Kind of problems perceived, also classified as above ↑
MigrationM09aa01aEver moved or not
MigrationM09aa01dRecently moved, also classified as above ↑
MigrationM09aa01cTime since last move, also classified as above ↑
Subjective economic situationI01ac02Subjective poverty
Subjective economic situationI01ad03cWelfare, also classified as above ↑