Findings on happiness in Diener & Seligman (2002): study US 1997

Publication
Author(s)Diener, E.; Seligman, M.E.P.
TitleVery Happy People.
SourcePsychological Science, 2002, Vol. 13, 81 - 84
DOIDOI::10.1111/1467-9280.00415
Investigation
PublicUndergraduate students, US, 199?
 Undergraduate students of University of Illinois
 Year of data gathering not reported
Survey nameNot available
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Respondents N =222
Non ResponseNot available
AssesmentQuestionnaire: paper
 Daily report of mood and activities during 51 days; peer ratings.
Happiness measure(s) used
Full textVarious self reports and informant rating A Selfreport on five questions repeated three times during semester: a In most ways my life is close to ideal b The conditions of my life are excellent c I am satisfied with my life d So far, I have gotten the important things I want in life e If I could live my life over, I would change nothing Answers rated: 7 strongly agree ...1 strongly disagree (Diener's Satisfaction With Life Scale, SWLS) B Selfreport on 24 questions: How much of each mood did you experience in the last month? BA LOVE a Affection b love c caring d fondness BB JOY a joy b happiness c contentment d pride BC FEAR a fear b worry c anxiety d nervous BD ANGER a anger b irritation c disgust d rage BE SHAME a shame b guilt c regret d embarrassment BF SADNES a sadness b loneliness c unhappiness d depression Rated: 0 = not at all .6 extremely much Summation: balance score (BA+BB)/2 - (BC+BD+BE+BF)/4 C Rating of B by five informants D Selfreport of daily affect on B Summation: z-scores
ClassificationM-AO---mqr-*-0-a
Author's labelhappiness
Page in publication81
RemarksThe highest 10%, the middle 27% and the lowest 10% were selected. A check using three alternative indicators of wellbeing lead to the same groep assignment, one case excepted, which was removed. The alternative indicators were: 1) memory event recal balance, 2) trait self description and 3) suicidal thoughts Selelected in two stages. Stage 1: Four happiness measures were administrated - Satisfaction with Life scale - Global self-reported affect balance - Informant affect balance - Daily affect balance Scores were standardized and the z score for each individual were added. The highest and lowest 10% of standardized scores were selected on the basis of this distribution. Stage 2: Three groups were filtered with a discriminant function with three measures to determine whether these group members remained the same with three other measures: - Memory event recall balance - Trait self-description - Interview suicide measure 1 Ss from very happy was removed
Finding used in
nation ranks
Yes
 On original range 0 - 0On range 0 - 10
Mean
Standard deviation1.00


Full textSelfreport of daily mood on 24 questions 'Please indicate how much of each emotion you felt in the past month' A LOVE Aa Affection Ab love Ac caring Ab fondness B JOY Ba joy Bb happiness Bc contentment Bd pride C FEAR Ca fear Cb worry Cc anxiety Cd nervous D ANGER Da anger Db irritation Dc disgust Dd rage E SHAME Ea shame Eb guilt Ec regret Ed embarrassment F SADNES Fa sadness Fb loneliness Fc unhappiness Fd depression Answer options: 1 not at all 2 very slight 3 somewhat 4 moderate amount 5 much 6 very much 7 extremely much Options presented horizontally Computation: average A+B minus average C+D+E+F
ClassificationA-BD3-cm-mqr-v-7-a
Author's labelGlobal self-reported affect balance
Page in publication82
Finding used in
nation ranks
Yes
 On original range -6 - 6On range 0 - 10
Mean1.80
Standard deviation0.50


Full textSelfreport of daily mood on 24 questions 'Please indicate how much of each emotion you felt today' A LOVE Aa Affection Ab love Ac caring Ab fondness B JOY Ba joy Bb happiness Bc contentment Bd pride C FEAR Ca fear Cb worry Cc anxiety Cd nervous D ANGER Da anger Db irritation Dc disgust Dd rage E SHAME Ea shame Eb guilt Ec regret Ed embarrassment F SADNES Fa sadness Fb loneliness Fc unhappiness Fd depression Answer options: 1 not at all 2 very slight 3 somewhat 4 moderate amount 5 much 6 very much 7 extremely much Options presented horizontally Computation: average A+B minus average C+D+E+F
ClassificationA-BD3-md-mqr-v-7-a
Author's labelInformant affect balance
Page in publication82
RemarksRated each day over 51 days
Finding used in
nation ranks
Yes
 On original range -6 - 6On range 0 - 10
Mean1.90
Standard deviation0.70


Full textRating by family and peers of daily mood on 24 questions 'Please indicate how much of each emotion Ss felt today' A LOVE Aa Affection Ab love Ac caring Ab fondness B JOY Ba joy Bb happiness Bc contentment Bd pride C FEAR Ca fear Cb worry Cc anxiety Cd nervous D ANGER Da anger Db irritation Dc disgust Dd rage E SHAME Ea shame Eb guilt Ec regret Ed embarrassment F SADNES Fa sadness Fb loneliness Fc unhappiness Fd depression Answer options: 1 not at all 2 very slight 3 somewhat 4 moderate amount 5 much 6 very much 7 extremely much Options presented horizontally Computation: average A+B minus average C+D+E+F
ClassificationA-BD3-g-rdv-v-7-a
Author's labelDaily affect balance
RemarksOn average five informants rated each participant. The score for each participant was calculated by subtracting the mean for negative adjectives from the mean of positive adjectives
Finding used in
nation ranks
Yes
 On original range -6 - 6On range 0 - 10
Mean1.60
Standard deviation0.40


Correlational findings

Author's labelSubject Code
Finding
Subject description
Affect intensityA03ab04Intensity of affects
AgreeablenessP05adAgreeable
ConscientiousP05aoConscientious
DepressionH13ac04aDepressive (f31-33)
ExtraversionP05azExtraverted
Extremely happy or unhappyH07aa02lO-further by A-AB
Family ConflictF01adFamily climate (earlier for adults, current for young)
HypochondriasisH15abCurrent psycho-somatic complaints
HypochondriasisH13ac05bHypochondric (f45.2), also classified as above ↑
HypomaniaH13ac04bHypomanic (f30)
HysteriaH13ac11bHysteric (f99)
NeuroticismP05cbNeurotic
OpennessP05ccOpen
ParanoiaH13ac03bParanoid (f20-22)
PsychastheniaH13ac11cPsychasthenic (f99)
PsychopathicH13ab02bScores on symptom inventories
Relationship rated by peersI07abCurrent intimate relationships
Relationships with close friendF06ab01Number of close friends
Romantic relationshipI07abCurrent intimate relationships
SchizophreniaH13ac03aSchizophrenic (f20)
Strong family relationshipF02acFamily climate
Time spent aloneT01ad01Time spend alone
Time spent with family, friends, and romantic partnerI07abCurrent intimate relationships
Time spent with family, friends, and romantic partnerT01ad06Time spend socializing, also classified as above ↑