Findings on happiness in Rothbart (1981): study US Oregon 1976

Author(s)Rothbart, M.K.
TitleMeasurement of Temperament in Infancy
SourceChild development, 1981, 52, 560-578
Public3-12 months aged infants, Oregon, United States, 197?
 Year of assessment not reported, estimated 1976
Survey nameUnnamed study
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
 Parents, whose infants' births was announced in the local newspaper, were sent letters to ask for participation
Respondents N =215
  3-months-old: N= 93. (N=36 also assessed at 6, 9 & 12 months) 6-months-old: N=63. (N=34 also assessed at 9 & 12 months) 9-months-old: N=59 (N=36 also assessed at 12 months)
Non Response41%
AssesmentBehavioural observation
Happiness measure(s) used
Full textRating by parents of smiling and laughter in 15 different situations, such as During the last week, when being undressed, how often did your child smile or laugh? 1 never 2 very rarely 3 less than half the time 4 about half the time 5 more than half the time 6 almost always 7 always Full list of situations not reported Part of Rothbart Infant Behavior Questionnaire IBQ
Author's labelSmiling and Laughter
Page in publication573, 574, 575
Error estimatesCorrelations of ratings across 15 situations: at 3 months: mr=+.57 (range: 0.40 - 0.75) at 6 months: mr=+.49 (range: 0.29 - 0.62) at 9 months: mr=+.46 (range: 0.28 - 0.64) at 12 months: mr=+.51 (range: 0.27 - 0.74) Reliability of the 15 items: at 3 months: 0.85 at 6 months: 0.77 at 9 months: 0.73 at 12 months: 0.80
Finding used in
nation ranks

Correlational findings

Author's labelSubject Code
Subject description
Activity LevelP05acActive
Distress to LimitationsP05btIrritable
Distress to LimitationsP05deTense, also classified as above ↑
Duration of OrientingP05bqInterested
FearA03abCurrent affective life, also classified as above ↑
SoothabilityC11abCurrent coping, also classified as above ↑
StabilityH07ab02gA-CA by A-CA