Findings on happiness in Wessman & Ricks (1966): study US 1957 /1

Publication
Author(s)Wessman, A.E.; Ricks, D.F.
TitleMood and Personality.
SourceHolt, Rinehart and Wilson, 1966, New York, USA
Investigation
PublicMale college students, followed 3 years, Harvard University, USA, 1957-60
 1957-1960
Survey nameNot available
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
 Non-probability accidental sample undergraduates, volunteering as paid parti- cipants in a three year research project. All students superior in intelligence and academic performance; most of them of favored S.E.S., broad cultural backgrounds and interests; above average in the qualities of being introspective, self-aware and articulate.
Respondents N =17
Non Response37%: 9 dropouts, incomplete; about the same happiness distribution.
AssesmentMultiple methods
 Mood diary kept 30 days and repeated interviews and tests during three years.
General remarksSame study also reported in WESSM 1973 (Study 2).
Happiness measure(s) used
Full textSelfreport on single question, repeated every evening before retiring during 3 weeks (experience sampling). "On the average, how happy or unhappy did you feel today....?" 1 Extremely unhappy. Utterly depressed. Completely down. 2 Very unhappy. Depressed. Spirits very low. 3 Pretty unhappy. Somewhat 'blue'. Spirits down. 4 Mildly unhappy. Just a little low. 5 Barely unhappy. Just this side of neutral. 6 Barely happy. Just this side of neutral. 7 Mildly happy. Feeling fairly good and somewhat cheerful. 8 Pretty happy. Spirits high. Feeling good. 9 Very happy. Feeling really good. Elated. 10 Extremely happy. Feeling ecstatic, joyous, fantastic. Name: Wessman & Ricks' `Elation - Depression Scale" (adapted version)
ClassificationA-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-a
Author's labelHedonic level
Error estimatesReliability: Validity: External congruent validity: - correlations (r) with composite clinical rank order of happiness from 6 months earliers by 6 staff psychologists (inter-judge agreement: r = +.80): r = +.71 with mean daily average, r = +.44 with mean daily peak, r = +.63 with mean daily trough - correlations with questionnaire items indicative of avowed happiness from 2 years earlier: r = +.67 with mean daily average, r = +.66 with peak, r = +.32 with trough - correlations with a system of scoring TAT themes supposedly indicative of happiness; r = +.27 with mean daily average, r = +.19 with peak, r = +.13 with trough - correlations with clinical rank on present happiness, stressing possible aware subjective feelings,from a half year after: r = +.76 with mean daily average, r = +.57 with peak, r = +.56 with trough - correlations with overall composite clinical rank on happiness from half a year after, using all clinical data and knowledge over 3 years: r = +.69 with mean daily average, r = +.48 with peak, r = +.42 with trough. External concurrent validity: - correlations with MMPI Depression Scale, taken 2 years previously: r = -.83 with mean daily average, r = -.63 with peak, r = -.51 with trough - correlations with clinical rank on happy life history, stressing autobio- graphic reports and information concerning past life experiences up to the time of entering college: r = +.48 with mean daily average, r = +.42 with peak, r = +.34 with trough.
Finding used in
nation ranks
Yes
 On original range 1 - 10On range 0 - 10
Mean5.965.50
Standard deviation0.94


Correlational findings

Author's labelSubject Code
Finding
Subject description
Academic performancerelative to poten- tial abilitiesS01ac02School-success
Affective complexityA03ab01Complexity of affect-pattern
Amount of sleepS04ab01Amount of sleep
Avowed happinessH07aa02mO-further by A-ARE
Avowed happinessH04ab01bPast happiness ( 1 to 10 years ago), also classified as above ↑
Being more influenced by peaks than by dips.A03ab04Intensity of affects
College performanceS01ac02School-success
Companionship vs being isolatedM14ac05Feeling close (vs remote)
Concealment of emotionsP05boInhibited
Consistent (dis)- agreeing response tendenciesP05aeAgreeing, yea-saying
Consistent (dis)- agreeing response tendenciesI06ac03Response tendencies, also classified as above ↑
Earlier optimismP02ab19Earlier optimism
Earlier self-esteemP02ab24Earlier self-confidence
Earlier self-esteemS02aa01Earlier self-image, also classified as above ↑
Eccentric test- attitudeP05blImpulsive (vs self controlled)
Eccentric test- attitudeI06ac03Response tendencies, also classified as above ↑
Energy vs fatigueM14ac06Feeling energetic (vs lethargic, tired)
Evasive test-attitu-de (social-desirabi-lity)P05atDefensive
Evasive test-attitu-de (social-desirabi-lity)I06ac03Response tendencies, also classified as above ↑
Evasive test-attitu-de (social-desirabi-lity)P05cv02Style of self-disclosure, also classified as above ↑
Experience of timeT01abCurrent time-perception
Feelings of failure to fulfill ambitionsH07ab03dA-ARE by C-RW
Feelings of failure to fulfill ambitionsS02ab01Self-perceived ability, also classified as above ↑
Fullness vs emptiness of lifeM14ac09Feeling full (vs empty)
Happiness_AH07ab04dA-ARE by M-ACO
Happiness_AH04ab01aRecent happiness (< 1 year ago), also classified as above ↑
Happiness_BH07ab04dA-ARE by M-ACO
Happiness_BH09ab06Rating of happiness by clinician, also classified as above ↑
Happiness_BH04ab01aRecent happiness (< 1 year ago), also classified as above ↑
Happiness_CH07ab04dA-ARE by M-ACO
Happiness_CH09ab04Rating of happiness by interviewer, also classified as above ↑
Happy life historyL06ab01Burden of current life-events
Happy life historyH09ab06Rating of happiness by clinician, also classified as above ↑
Happy life historyH04ab01aRecent happiness (< 1 year ago), also classified as above ↑
Happy life historyH04aa01Retrospective level of happiness (period unspecified), also classified as above ↑
Harmony vs angerM14ac08Feeling friendly (vs hostile)
Hedonic level of most depressed momentsA03ab04Intensity of affects
Hedonic level of most elated momentsA03ab04Intensity of affects
Hypobolic - hyperbo-lic verbal expessionP05boInhibited
Hypobolic - hyperbo-lic verbal expessionI06ac03Response tendencies, also classified as above ↑
Hypobolic - hyperbo-lic verbal expessionP05cv02Style of self-disclosure, also classified as above ↑
Ideal-self descript-ionsS02acCurrent self-ideal
Identity integrityP04abPersonality integration
Impulse expression vs self-restraintM14ac07aFeeling free from inner restraints
Intellectual abilityat college entranceI03ab01Test-intelligence
Length of time spanT01ab04cOrientation on the future
Life historyL06aa01aBurden of earlier life-events
Love and sexM14ac05bFeeling love (vs not)
Normal introversionP05azExtraverted
Organization of timeT01acCurrent time-organization
Own sociability (vs withdrawal)M14ac05cFeeling sociable (vs withdrawn)
Past DepressionH13aa01Earlier mental health
Past depression and insecurityH13aa01Earlier mental health
Past parental treat-ment and relation- shipsF01ad02Relations with parents
Past sibling conflictF01ad01Relations with siblings
Personal freedom vs external constraintM14ac07bFeeling free from external restraints
Personal maturity and integrationP04abPersonality integration
Personal moral judgementM14ac13Feeling morally good (vs guilty)
Personality traitsP05PERSONALITY: CURRENT TRAITS
Present workW05ad01Satisfaction with work-as-a-whole
Pressure of academicworkD01abCurrent hassles
Pressure of academicworkS01af03Perceived pressure of school-work, also classified as above ↑
Projective helplessnessP05biHelpless
Projective guiltP05bfGuilty
Projective happinessL04ab02Perceives a lot of happiness (projective happiness)
Projective helpless-nessS02ab01Self-perceived ability
Psycho-sexual stages of developmentP03abCurrent stage of development
Psycho-social developmentP03abCurrent stage of development
Psycho-social stagesof developmentP03abCurrent stage of development
Pysical healthH14ab02eFeeling healthy
Real - ideal self congruencyS02ad03aReal-ideal congruence
Real-self descriptionsS02abCurrent self-characterization
Receptivity towards the worldM14ac10bFeeling receptive
Repression and denialP05atDefensive
Repression and denialP05boInhibited, also classified as above ↑
Self-confidence (vs inadequacy)M14ac12Feeling self-confident (vs inadequate)
Social respect (vs social contempt)M14ac14Feeling respectable (vs rejected)
Supressivity and concealment of emotionsP05atDefensive
Test dishonestyP05beGenuine
Test dishonestyI06ac03Response tendencies, also classified as above ↑
Thought processesM14ac03Feeling clear (vs dull, confused)
Tranquility vs anxietyM14ac15Feeling tranquil (vs restless)
Valuation of happinessH11ac03Moral desirability of happiness
Variation in hedonic level, within dayA03ab05Variability of affects
Variation in hedoniclevel, day to dayA03ab05Variability of affects