Findings on happiness in Miller et al. (1991): study US 1956

Author(s)Miller, M.L.; Dempster-McClain, D.; Moen, P.
TitleMotherhood, Multiple Roles, and Maternal Well-Being: Women of the 1950 s.
SourceGender and Society, 1991, Vol. 5, 565 - 582
PublicWhite married mothers with children under age 13, USA 1956
Survey nameNot available
SampleProbability stratified sample
 Married women with children selected from a random sample of white women in a medium size upstate New York community
Respondents N =356
Non ResponseNot available
AssesmentInterview: face-to-face
 and questionnaire.
General remarksFollow study also reported in MOEN1995
Happiness measure(s) used
Full textSelfreport on 3 questions: A How often do you find yourself feeling disappointed about the ways things have turned out for you? 1 often 2 sometimes 3 hardly ever B All in all, how much happiness would you say you find in your life today? 1 almost none 2 some 3 a good deal C On the whole, how satisfied would you say you are with your life today? 1 not very satisfied 2 fairly satisfied 3 very satisfied Summation: A+B+C/3
Author's labelgeneral life satisfaction
Page in publication568
Error estimatesCronbach alpha: .62
Finding used in
nation ranks
 On original range 1 - 3On range 0 - 10
Standard deviation0.36

Correlational findings

Author's labelSubject Code
Subject description
AgeA04abCurrent age (in years)
EducationE01ab02Level of school-education
EmploymentE02ab01Full-time home maker
EmploymentE02ad01Full-time vs part-time, also classified as above ↑
EmploymentF02af01Oneself-mother: works (vs not), also classified as above ↑
Life-cycle stageC04ab01Age of children
maternal detachmentC06acAttitudes to parenting
maternal discontentC01ac01Attitudes to one's own children
maternal discontentC06ac02Evaluation of oneself as a parent, also classified as above ↑
maternal discontentT01af02Satisfaction with time-use, also classified as above ↑
Maternal inadequacyC01ac01Attitudes to one's own children
Maternal inadequacyC06acAttitudes to parenting, also classified as above ↑
Number of childrenC03ab01Number of children
Social classS09abCurrent socio-economic status
Social integrationS06abCurrent contacts
Social integrationR04ab01Current number of roles, also classified as above ↑
Social integrationS07abCurrent organizational participation, also classified as above ↑
Social integrationS08abCurrent total social participation, also classified as above ↑
Social integrationR04ab03bWork roles, also classified as above ↑