Findings on happiness in Bowling & Gabriel (2004): study GB 2001

Author(s)Bowling, A.P.; Gabriel, Z.
TitleAn Integrational Model of Quality of Life in Older Age. Results from the ESRC/MRC HSRC Quality of Life Survey in Britain.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2004, Vol. 69, 1 - 36
Public65+aged, Britain, 2000-2001
 Sample included elderly living at home.
Collect periodNovember 2000- Febru
Survey nameOmnibus Survey
 The study used the sampling frame of Omnibus Survey.
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
 65+ aged selected from pooled general population samples. The socio-demographic characteristics of the sample were similar to those from mid-year population estimates for Great Britain (estimated from the last census).
Respondents N =999
Non Response23%
 19% refused to participate and 4% were not contactable during the interview period.
AssesmentInterview: face-to-face
 Interviews took place in the homes of respondents. They lasted between 60-90 minutes.
Happiness measure(s) used
Full textSelfreport on single question: Thinking about the good and bad things in your life, which of the answers best describes your life-as-a-whole? 1 as bas as can be 2 very bad 3 bad 4 allright 5 good 6 very good 7 as good as can be
Author's labelQuality of Life
Page in publication7
RemarksThe findings were not specified clearly.
Finding used in
nation ranks
 On original range 1 - 7On range 0 - 10
Standard deviation0.82

Correlational findings

Author's labelSubject Code
Subject description
AgeA04abCurrent age (in years)
Depression/Anxiety (GHQ)H13ac04aDepressive (f31-33)
Frequency of lonelinessM15ac05aFeeling lonely (vs not)
Health statusH14ab02Self-perceived health
Health value scoreH12adAttitudes to health-maintenance
Health value scoreH14af01Concerns about health, also classified as above ↑
Highest level of educational qualificationE01ab02Level of school-education
Housing tenureH22ab01bKind of ownership
Increase in lonelinessM15ac05aFeeling lonely (vs not)
Increase in lonelinessM15aa02Recent change in mood-pattern, also classified as above ↑
Long-standing illnessH14ab02dChronic illness
Long-standing illnessH14ac01Degree of restriction, also classified as above ↑
Neighbourliness of areaL16ac02Attitude to neighborhood
Optimism-pessimism biasP05ceOptimistic
PetsP07abCurrent pets
Physical functioning (ADL score)H14acCurrent functional health
Quality of areaL13abCurrent local livability
Quality of areaL14ab03Local environmental quality, also classified as above ↑
Safety of areaL17ac03Perceived safety in community
Self assesed risks of negative life eventsL04ae01dLife compared with situation of others
Self-efficacyP05avEfficacious, productive
SexG01aaSex (male vs female)
Social activitiesA02abCurrent activity pattern
Social activitiesS08abCurrent total social participation, also classified as above ↑
Social classS09abCurrent socio-economic status
Social comparison and expectationsL04ae01cLife compared with expectations
Social supportS10abCurrent social support received
Total VarianceS15ab02Socio-demographic + environmental factors
Total VarianceS15ab03Socio-demographic + health, also classified as above ↑
Total VarianceS15ab07Socio-demographic + personality, also classified as above ↑
Total VarianceS15ab09Socio-demographic + social support, also classified as above ↑
Total VarianceS15ab01Socio-demographic factors only, also classified as above ↑