Findings on happiness in Gorman (1971): study US 1970

Author(s)Gorman, B.S.
TitleA Multivariate Study of the Relationship of Cognitive Control and Cognitive Style Principles to Reported Daily Mood Experiences.
SourceUnpublished PhD Dissertation, The City University of New York, 1971, USA
PublicUndergraduate students, Nassau Community College, USA, 1970
Collect periodsummer
Survey nameNot available
SampleNot available
 Non-probability chunk sample using volunteering undergraduate students en- rolled in an abnormal psychology course. 20 males, 47 females; age 18-40, median age 20; subjects from solidly middle- class backgrounds.
Respondents N =67
Non Response4%, 3% refusal, 1% incomplete information
AssesmentMultiple methods
 Questionnaires administered in class and daily records kept at home during 28 days
General remarksSame study also reported in GORMA 1974. Same data also reported in Gorman, B.S. & Wessman, A.E. The relationship of cognitive styles and mood. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 1974, vol. 30, p.. 18-25.
Happiness measure(s) used
Full textSelfreport on single question, answered every evening before retiring during six weeks (experience sampling) "On average; how elated or depressed, happy or unhappy you felt today....? 10 Complete elation, rapturous joy and soaring ecstasy 9 Very elated and in very high spirits. Tremendous delight and buoyancy 8 Elated and in high spirits 7 Feeling very good and cheerful 6 Feeling pretty good , "OK" 5 Feeling a little bit low. Just so-so 4 Spirits low and somewhat 'blue' 3 Depressed and feeling very low. Definitely 'blue' 2 Tremendously depressed. Feeling terrible, really miserable, "just awful" 1 Utter depression and gloom. Completely down. All is black and leaden. Wish it were all over. Name: Wessman & Ricks' `Elation - depression scale'
Author's labelMood
Finding used in
nation ranks
 On original range 1 - 10On range 0 - 10
Standard deviation0.71

Full textSelfreport on single question: "Above you see a numbered ladder. Consider the top of the ladder as the best possible life and the bottom of the ladder as the worst possible life. A Please place an X where you feel you are now. B Place an Y at the point where you were five years ago. C Please place a Z at the point that you feel you will be at five years from now. [ 10 ] best possible life [ 9 ] [ 8 ] [ 7 ] [ 6 ] [ 5 ] [ 4 ] [ 3 ] [ 2 ] [ 1 ] [ 0 ] worst possible life Question A is the case question. Name: Cantril's self anchoring ladder rating of life (modified version)
Author's labelHappiness
Finding used in
nation ranks
 On original range 0 - 10On range 0 - 10
Standard deviation1.67

Correlational findings

Author's labelSubject Code
Subject description
Alcohol usageS13ab01Use of alcohol
Amount of sleepS04ab01Amount of sleep
Amphetamine usageS13ab02Use of amphetamines
Barbiturate usageS13ab03Use of barbiturates
Category widthI03ac06Sorting ability
Companionship vs being isolatedM15ac05Feeling close (vs remote)
Confidence vs feel- ing of inadequacyM15ac12Feeling self-confident (vs inadequate)
Day to day variability in specific moodsA03ab05Variability of affects
Elation vs depressionH07ab03eA-ARE by C-BW
Energy vs fatigueM15ac06Feeling energetic (vs lethargic, tired)
Expected happiness 5 years from nowH04aa04aIn the near future (up to 5 years)
Expected improvementof lifeH04aa05aIn the near future (up to 5 years)
External locus of control_AP05bpInner locus of control
External locus of control_BP05bpInner locus of control
External sensation seekingP05cqSensation seeking
Field independence_AI03ac04aField independence
Field Independence_BI03ac04aField independence
Field Independence_CI03ac04aField independence
Harmony vs angerM15ac08Feeling friendly (vs hostile)
Hedonic level of most depressed momentsA03ab04Intensity of affects
Hedonic level of most elated momentsA03ab04Intensity of affects
Impulse expression vs self-restraintM15ac07aFeeling free from inner restraints
Internal sensation seekingP05cqSensation seeking
Language facilityI03ac07Verbal ability
Love and sexM15ac05bFeeling love (vs not)
Male sexG01aaSex (male vs female)
Marijuana usageS13ab07Use of marihuana, hash
Mood differentiation and complexityA03ab01Complexity of affect-pattern
Mood fluctuationA03ab05Variability of affects
Mood word fluencyI03ac07Verbal ability
Nation sorting ability_AI03ac06Sorting ability
Nation sorting ability_BI03ac06Sorting ability
Object sorting ability_AI03ac06Sorting ability
Object sorting ability_BI03ac06Sorting ability
Own sociability vs withdrawalM15ac05cFeeling sociable (vs withdrawn)
Perceived happiness 5 years agoH04aa01aIn recent past
Perceived improvement of lifeH04aa03aRecent change
Personal freedom vs external constraintM15ac07bFeeling free from external restraints
Personal moral judgementM15ac13Feeling morally good (vs guilty)
Present workW05ad01Satisfaction with work-as-a-whole
Pressure of academicworkD01abCurrent hassles
Pressure of academicworkS01af03Perceived pressure of school-work, also classified as above ↑
Receptivity towards the worldM15ac10bFeeling receptive
Rigidity_AI03ac04bPerceptual rigidity
Rigidity_AP05cnRigid, also classified as above ↑
Rigidity_BI03ac04bPerceptual rigidity
Rigidity_CI03ac04bPerceptual rigidity
Self-perceived physical healthH14ab02eFeeling healthy
Sensation seekingP05cqSensation seeking
Shallow affectA03ab04Intensity of affects
Social desirabilityP05ahApproval seeking
Subjective confidence and hopeH04aa05aIn the near future (up to 5 years)
Temporal orientationT01abCurrent time-perception
Thought processesM15ac03Feeling clear (vs dull, confused)
Tranquility vs anxietyM15ac15Feeling tranquil (vs restless)
Variability in ela- tion vs depression, day to dayA03ab05Variability of affects