Findings on Happiness and RESOURCES

World Database of Happiness

Correlational Findings on Happiness and RESOURCES
Subject Code: R02

© on data collection: Ruut Veenhoven, Erasmus University Rotterdam

Classification of Findings
Subject Code Description Nr of Studies
on this Subject
R02RESOURCES0
R02aaResource career0
R02aa01Earlier resources0
R02aa02Change in resources1
R02aa03Later resources0
R02abCurrent resources13
R02ab01Personal qualities3
R02ab02Resource-variety0
R02acAttitudes to own resources7
R02ab03Relative resources9
 
Appendices
Appendix 1Happiness measures used 
Appendix 2Statistics used 
Appendix 3About the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 4Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 5Related Subjects 

Cite as:    Veenhoven, R.: Findings on Happiness and RESOURCES
World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings
Internet: http://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/top_sub.php?code=R02
Erasmus University Rotterdam, 2018, Netherlands

Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in resources
Subject code: R02aa02

StudyGraney (1973): study US 1967
TitleThe Affect Balance Scale and Old Age.
SourcePaper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Midwest Sociological Society, 1973, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA
Public62-89 aged females, followed 4 years USA, 1967-71
Sample
Non-Response27%; 24% unattainable, 3% incomplete.
Respondents N =44

Correlate
Author's labelGains in social status over 4 years
Page in Source 7
Our classificationChange in resources, code R02aa02
Operationalization
Comparison of T1 and T2.
A significant move to a fully independent household, 
marriage, and taking paying employment were defined as 
status gains. Institutionalization, the death of 
supportive family members and friends, and recent 
geographic dispersion of supportive children were 
defined as losses. Ss classified as having experienced: 
losses / no change / gains

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-atb=+.13 ns
At T1 all Ss were in good health, able to care for 
themselves and lived alone.
Happiness assessed at T2.

% happy at T2:
- losses     22%
- no change  28%
- gains      40%


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current resources
Subject code: R02ab

StudyBöhnke (2002): study DE 1998
TitleLebensbedingungen und ihre Bewertung. (Living Conditions and its Valuation).
SourceStatistisches Bundesamt; Eds.: "Daten Report 2002", Bonn, Germany, 464 - 473
Public18+ aged, general public, Germany, 1998,1999
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response30%
Respondents N =3500

Correlate
Author's labelliving conditions
Page in Source 471
Our classificationCurrent resources, code R02ab
Operationalization
1. pecarious condition
2. well-being

When two or more of the following conditions are 
present, the term 'precarious conditions' is used:
- low standard of living
- not enough money
- bad housing condition (little room, no bath/toilet)

When none of these conditions are present, the term 
well-being is used.
Remarks
Measures valid for 2001

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-v-2-bMAoV=
% mostly happy
1. precarious 45%
2. Well-being 85%


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current resources
Subject code: R02ab

StudyLeonardi et al. (1999): study IT 1995
TitleThe Top-Down/Bottom-Up Controvercy from a Constructionist Approach: A Method for Measuring Top-Down Effects Applied to Sample of Older People.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1999, Vol. 48, 187 - 216
DOIDOI: 10.1023/A:1006977717925
Public55+aged, Italy, followed 5 years 1995-200
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response50.5%
Respondents N =297

Correlate
Author's labelBottom-up factor
Page in Source 66
Our classificationCurrent resources, code R02ab
Operationalization
T1 life conditions

Factor extracted from 20 living conditions. Conditions 
not mentioned

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-v-4-ea=.731
T1 happines by T1 resources
O-SLu-g-sq-v-4-eBeta=
T2 happiness by T1 life conditions, controling T1 
top down effect
1 out of 20 life conditions significant
O-SLu-g-sq-v-4-eBeta=
T2 happiness by T2 life conditions, controling T1 
top down effect
7 out of 20 life conditions significant


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current resources
Subject code: R02ab

StudyKoo & Yee (2016): study KR 2014
TitleDimensions of Social Well-being and Determinants in Korea: Personal. Relational, and Societal Aspects.
SourceThe Senshu Social Well-being Review, 2016, no 3
Public18+ aged, general public, South Korea, 2014-2018
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2000

Correlate
Author's labelVulnerability
Page in Source 53
Our classificationCurrent resources, code R02ab
Operationalization
0 Vulnerable (never married, low income, no job, low 
education)
1 Endurable (other)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-ceDM=+3.5
Vulnerable        M=2.88
Endurable         M=6.41
-difference        +3.47
O-HL-?-sq-n-11-aDM=+3.2
Vulnerable        M=3.40
Endurable         M=6.57
-difference        +3.17
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aDM=+3.0
Vulnerable        M=3.12
Endurable         M=6.15
-difference        +3.03


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current resources
Subject code: R02ab

StudyBoelhouwer (2002): study NL 1997
TitleSocial Indicators and Living Conditions in the Netherlands.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2002, Vol. 60, 89 - 113
DOIDOI:10.1023/A:1021200828811
Public18+ aged, general public, The Netherlands, 1997
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =3500

Correlate
Author's labelLiving conditions
Page in Source 96,100
Our classificationCurrent resources, code R02ab
Operationalization
Selfreport on questions about:
A Housing
- type of ownership (1 tenant, 2 owner)
- type of building (1 detached single family dwelling, 
2 attached single family dwelling, 3 appartment)
- number of rooms
- area of living room
- scary spot in neighbourhood
- year of construction
B Health
- number of psychosomatic symptons
- number of 8 serious illnesses
- number of other illnesses
C Purchasing power/consumer durables
- number of household appliances
- number of hobby articles
D Leisure activities
- number of hobbies
- number of non-domestic entertainment activities
- organizational membership
E Mobility
- car ownership
- season ticket railway
F Social participation
- active contribution to activities of organization
- volunteer work
- social isolation (scale)
G Sport activity
- number of times sporting a week
- number of sports
H Vacation
- vacation in past year
- vacation to a foreign country
- number of vaction articles

Computation: weighted summation using component 
loadings in catagories.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-ar=+.33 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current resources
Subject code: R02ab

StudyBoelhouwer (2010): study NL 1977
TitleWellbeing in the Netherlands.The SCP Life Situation Index since 1974.
SourceSocial Cultural Planning Office (SCP), 2010, the Hague, Netherlands
URLhttp://www.scp.nl/english/Publications/Publications_by_year/Publications_2010/Wellbeing_in_the_Netherlands
Public18+ aged, general public, The Netherlands, 1977-2006
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =54299

Correlate
Author's labelLife situation Index
Page in Source 132
Our classificationCurrent resources, code R02ab
Operationalization
Selfreport on questions about:
A Housing
- type of ownership (1 tenant, 2 owner)
- type of building (1 detached single family dwelling, 
2 
attached single family dwelling, 3 appartment)
- number of rooms
- area of living room
- scary spot in neighbourhood
- year of construction
B Health
- number of psychosomatic symptons
- number of 8 serious illnesses
- number of other illnesses
C Purchasing power/consumer durables
- number of household appliances
- number of hobby articles
D Leisure activities
- number of hobbies
- number of non-domestic entertainment activities
- organizational membership
E Mobility
- car ownership
- season ticket railway
F Social participation
- active contribution to activities of organization
- volunteer work
- social isolation (scale)
G Sport activity
- number of times sporting a week
- number of sports
H Vacation
- vacation in past year
- vacation to a foreign country
- number of vaction articles

Computation: weighted summation using component 
loadings in 
catagories.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-ab=+.19 p < .01
Gain on index over 29 years:
              1977      2006
-Very happy   98        109
-Unhappy      81        90
(100= mean of 1997)

The scores on the life situation index for the 
very unhappy persons increased from 81 in 1977 to 
90 in 2006 and for the very happy persons from 98 
in 1977 to 109 in 2006.
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-ab=+.17 p < .01
B controlled for background features:
-Gender
-Education
-Employment
-Age
-City
-Household composition
-Ethnicity
-Income
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-ab=+.04 p < .01
B controlled for satisfaction with:
-Health
-Home
-Residential environment
-Friends and acquaintances
-Social position
-Education
-Financial resources
-Dutch society
-Government
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-ab=+.01 p < .01
B controlled for both background features and 
domain satisfactions.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current resources
Subject code: R02ab

StudyBoelhouwer & Stoop (1999): study NL 1974
TitleMeasuring Well-Being in the Netherlands.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1999, Vol. 48, 51 - 75
DOIDOI:10.1023/A:1006931028334
Public18+ aged, general public, The Netherlands, 1974-1997
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =3500

Correlate
Author's labelLiving Conditions
Page in Source 62
Our classificationCurrent resources, code R02ab
Operationalization
Score on LCI (Living conditions Index) of the 
Netherlands Social and Cultural Planning Office. 
Questions on the LCI Index involve the following 
subjects: 
Housing; Health; Purchasing Power; Leisure Activities; 
Mobility; Social Participation; Sport Activity; 
Holiday; and Miscellaneous.

1 Below average
2 Above average

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-ar=+.24 p < .05
1993
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-ar=+.33 p < .05
1997


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current resources
Subject code: R02ab

StudyGuillen-Royo (2008): study PE 2004
TitleConsumption and Subjective Wellbeing: Exploring Basic Needs, Social Comparison, Social Integration and Hedonism in Peru.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2008, Vol. 89, 535 - 555
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-008-9248-1
PublicGeneral public, 7 poor communities, Peru, 2005
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =399

Correlate
Author's labelIntermediate needs
Page in Source 544-545
Our classificationCurrent resources, code R02ab
Operationalization
Number of needs household lacks access to
Observed distributionM = 3.321; SD = 1.436
Remarks
10 intermediate needs include: 
a. health service utilisation
b. basic education
c. significant primary relationships
d. nutrition
e. sanitation
f. driking water
g. electricity
h. main dwelling
i. economic and physical security
j. safe birth control
where an index of 10 indicates that a household lacks 
access to all the 10 intermediate needs and an index of 
0 that has access to all of them

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-ab=-.08 p < .1
B controlled for:
-Socio-demographic characteristic
 -age squared
 -male dummy
 -religion dummy
 -cohabiting dummy
 -chronic illness dummy
 -age
 -self-employed dummy
 -homemaker dummy
-Consumption
 -log total expenditure
-Location
 -Peri-urban dummy
 -rural dummy
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-ab=-.10 p < .05
B controlled for:
-Socio-demographic characteristic
 -age squared
 -male dummy
 -religion dummy
 -cohabiting dummy
 -chronic illness dummy
 -age
 -homemaker dummy
 -self-employed
-Consumption
 -average expenditure
 -relative expenditure
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-ab=-.12 p < .05
B controlled for:
-Socio-demographic characteristic
 -age squared
 -male dummy
 -religion dummy
 -cohabiting dummy
 -chronic illness dummy
 -age
 -homemaker dummy
 -self-employed
-Consumption
 -average expenditure
 -relative expenditure
-Motives for consumption
 -providing household basics dummy
 -hedonism dummy
 -social interaction dummy


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current resources
Subject code: R02ab

StudyEvans et al. (2007): study GB 1994
TitleThe Impact of Mental Illness on Quality of Life: A Comparison of Severe Mental Illness, Common Mental Disorder and Healthy Population Samples.
SourceQuality of Life Research, 2007, Vol. 16, 17 - 29
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11136-006-9002-6
PublicMental patients and controls, followed 2 years, UK 1994-2001
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response94%
Respondents N =149

Correlate
Author's labelRestrictions
Page in Source 24
Our classificationCurrent resources, code R02ab
Operationalization
a: Depressed 
b: Mental health consultation
c: At least monthly family contact
d: Health oppertunities restricted
e: Financial oppertunities restricted
f: Living oppertunities restricted
g: Married cf not married
h: Positive cf negative disposition
i: Time
j: Safety opportunities restricted
k: Family oppertunities restricted
l: Income
m: Age
n: Home owner cf not a home owner

Rated 1: yes, 0: no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-bR²=.35
a: Mental patients with severe disorder:Patients 
of mental hospital
 - aged 18-65
 - diagnosed psychotic of at least 2 years 
duration
   - hospitalized at least 2 times
   - at least one of which prior to recruitement
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-bR²=.36
b: Community residents with common mental 
disorder:18+ aged community residents
 - participants in postal survey
 - scoring high on GQH-12 questionnaire
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-bR²=.26
c: Community residents in good mental health: 18+ 
aged community residents
 - participants in postal survey
 - scoring low on GQH-12 questionnaire


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current resources
Subject code: R02ab

StudyEvans et al. (2007): study GB 1994
TitleThe Impact of Mental Illness on Quality of Life: A Comparison of Severe Mental Illness, Common Mental Disorder and Healthy Population Samples.
SourceQuality of Life Research, 2007, Vol. 16, 17 - 29
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11136-006-9002-6
PublicMental patients and controls, followed 2 years, UK 1994-2001
SampleMixed samples
Non-Response94%
Respondents N =149

Correlate
Author's labelLiving situation opportunities restricted
Page in Source 24
Our classificationCurrent resources, code R02ab
Operationalization
Question not reported
Remarks
This question were not relevant to Mental patients wih 
severe disorder,

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-bb= ns
Community residents with Common Mental 
Disorder(CMD)
- 18+ aged community residents
- participants in postal survey
- scoring high on GQH-12 questionnaire
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-bb=-.24 p < .001
Community residente in good mental health
-18+ aged community residents
- participants in postal survey
- scoring low on GQH-12 questionnaire

Control variables not reported.

B means points difference on scale 1-7


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current resources
Subject code: R02ab

StudyRhoads & Raymond (1981): study US Arizona 1979
TitleQuality of Life and the Competent Community.
SourceAmerican Journal of Community Psychology, 1981, Vol. 9, 293 - 301
DOIDOI: 10.1007/BF00896065
PublicAdults, Phoenix, Arizona, USA,1979
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =547

Correlate
Author's labelPersonal factor
Page in Source 297-299
Our classificationCurrent resources, code R02ab
Operationalization
Factor loadings on factor 1 (personal life space):
a: Health and safety                 
b: Material comforts                   
c: Relationship with spouse
Remarks
Factor loading:
a:.64 
b:.58 
c:.57

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-arpc=+.40 p < .01
rpc controlled for age.
- Lowest income group: rpc=+.40 (p<.01)
- Middle income group: rpc=+.38 (p<.01)
- Highest income group:rpc=+.34 (p<.01)

In a regression with demographic and personal 
variables no increase in R2 when interaction with 
income is added.
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-aR²=+.14
Controlled for:
- age
- sex
- family income

Interaction with income ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current resources
Subject code: R02ab

StudyRhoads & Raymond (1981): study US Arizona 1979
TitleQuality of Life and the Competent Community.
SourceAmerican Journal of Community Psychology, 1981, Vol. 9, 293 - 301
DOIDOI: 10.1007/BF00896065
PublicAdults, Phoenix, Arizona, USA,1979
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =547

Correlate
Author's labelSocial factor
Page in Source 297-299
Our classificationCurrent resources, code R02ab
Operationalization
Factor loadings on factor 2 (Community orientation):
a: Passive recreation               
b: Socializing                               
c: Active recreation                   
d: Underrstanding self             
e: Relationship with spouse
Remarks
Factor loadings:
a: .66
b: .64
c: .59
d: .53
e: .57

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-arpc=+.35 p < .01
rpc controlling for age.
Lowest income group:   rpc=+.35 (p<.01)
Middle income group:   rpc=+.22 (p<.01)
Highest income group:  rpc=+.18 (p<.01)

In a regression with demographic and personal 
variables no increase in R2 when interaction with 
income is added.
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-aR²=+.01 ns
R2 controlled for:
- Age
- Sex
- Family income
- Personal factor
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-a


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current resources
Subject code: R02ab

StudyRhoads & Raymond (1981): study US Arizona 1979
TitleQuality of Life and the Competent Community.
SourceAmerican Journal of Community Psychology, 1981, Vol. 9, 293 - 301
DOIDOI: 10.1007/BF00896065
PublicAdults, Phoenix, Arizona, USA,1979
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =547

Correlate
Author's labelCommunity
Page in Source 297-299
Our classificationCurrent resources, code R02ab
Operationalization
Factor loadings on factor 3 (community):
a: Government participation      
b: Learning                                      
c: Helping others                          
d: Satisfying work
Remarks
Factor loadings:
a: .70
b: .57
c: .56
d: .54

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-arpc=+.37 p < .01
rpc controlled for age.
Lowest income group: rpc=+.37 (p<.01)
Middle income group: rpc=+.09 (p<.01)
Highest income group:rpc=+.10 (p<.01)
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-aR²=+.00 p < .05
R2 controlled for:
- Age
- Sex
- Family income
- Personal
- Social
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-aR²=+.01 p < .05
Increase when interaction with income is added.
R2 controlled for:
- Age
- Sex
- Family income
- Personal
- Social


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current resources
Subject code: R02ab

StudyLowenthal & Boler (1965): study US 1962
TitleVoluntary vs. Involuntary Social Withdrawal.
SourceJournal of Gerontology, 1965, Vol. 20, 363 - 371
Public60+aged, San Francisco, USA, 1962
Sample
Non-Response55%, 22% refusals, 9% deaths, 22% unattainable
Respondents N =269

Correlate
Author's labelDeprivation
Page in Source 367
Our classificationCurrent resources, code R02ab
Operationalization
Deprivation measured by an index of:
- compulsary retirement in past 7 yrs
- widowhood in past 7 yrs
- interviewer rating of physical disability

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-bcG=-.70 p < . 01
withdrawn    : G' = -.90 (01)
not withdrawn: G' = -.51 (05)

Social withdrawal measured by report of reduced 
participation in organisation, and less contacts 
with family and friends.

G' based on proportion unhappy
O-SLL-c-sq-v-4-cG=-.70 p < . 01
withdrawn    : G' = -.70 (01)
not withdrawn: G' = -.65 (01)
A-AOL-g-sq-v-3-bG=-.55 p < . 01
withdrawn    : G' = -.64 (ns)
not withdrawn: G' = -.40 (ns)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Personal qualities
Subject code: R02ab01

StudyRosenfield (1992): study US 1988
TitleFactors Contributing to the Subjective Quality of Life of the Chronic Mentally Ill.
SourceJournal of Health and Social Behavior, 1992, Vol. 33, 299 - 315
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/2137310?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents
Public20-70 aged, chronic mental patients, USA, 1989
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response7%
Respondents N =157

Correlate
Author's labelDaily living skills
Page in Source 305, 312
Our classificationPersonal qualities, code R02ab01
Operationalization
Selfreport on questions related to:
- managing a household 
- getting around in the community
- personal appearance
Rated on a 3-point numerical scale
Observed distributionM=2.13

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=+.01 ns
Beta controlled for:
- demographic characteristics:
  - age
  - sex
  - education
  - race
- number of negative events in the last year
- functioning in het area of:
  - social skills
  - vocational skills
- need for structure
- need for supervision
- social contacts
- positive symptoms
- negative symptoms


Correlational finding on Happiness and Personal qualities
Subject code: R02ab01

StudyChiriboga & Lowenthal (1971): study US 1969
TitlePsychological Correlates of Perceived Well-being.
SourceProceedings of the Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association, 1971, Vol. 6, 603 - 604
PublicPeople in transition, metropolis, USA, 1969
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =216

Correlate
Author's labelPsychological resources (positive mental health)_A
Page in Source 603
Our classificationPersonal qualities, code R02ab01
Operationalization
14 indicators of psychological resources including 
measures of mutuality (familial and extra-familial), 
resolution of losses, contextual and temporal 
perspective, growth, competence, in- sight, perceived 
and judged encroach-
ment, hope, and satisfaction with 
intrapersonal and interpersonal compe-
tence in general.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-dr=- p < .05
Six of the deficit indicators correlated 
significantly (05) with both affect balance and 
with negative affect.
No relationships with positive affect were found.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Personal qualities
Subject code: R02ab01

StudyChiriboga & Lowenthal (1971): study US 1969
TitlePsychological Correlates of Perceived Well-being.
SourceProceedings of the Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association, 1971, Vol. 6, 603 - 604
PublicPeople in transition, metropolis, USA, 1969
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =216

Correlate
Author's labelPsychological resources (positive mental health)_B
Page in Source 603
Our classificationPersonal qualities, code R02ab01
Operationalization
14 indicators of psychological resources including 
measures of mutuality (familial and extra-familial), 
resolution of losses, contextual and temporal 
perspective, growth, competence, in- sight, perceived 
and judged encroach-
ment, hope, and satisfaction with 
intrapersonal and interpersonal compe-
tence in general.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-cbr= +
In total significant correlations were found 
between two indicators of resources and 
psychological well-being.
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-dr= +
In total, significant correlations were found 
between two indicators of resources and 
psychological well-being.

There were four significant or near significant 
correlations with positive affect, four with 
negative affect (including two inverse relation- 
ships), and eight with affect balance.



Correlational finding on Happiness and Relative resources
Subject code: R02ab03

StudyCuesta & Budria (2011): study DE 2000
TitleDeprivation and Subjective Well-being: Evidence from Panel Data.
SourceEA Working Papers, 2011, No.8, UA Madrid, Spain
Public18+ aged, heads of households, Germany, 2000-2008
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =11000

Correlate
Author's labelDeprivation in savings (relative)
Page in Source 37-40
Our classificationRelative resources, code R02ab03
Operationalization
Remarks
Deprivation variable: weighted average difference 
between those who are better off and respondent's own 
score.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.08 p < .01
PORBIT ADAPTED OLS

B controlled for:
- social characteristics
  - age
  - gender
  - financial situation
  - education
  - household size
  - marital status
  - employment status
  - nationality
- personality traits
- relative lack of
  - income
  - facilities   (bath, toilet, etc)
  - durables     (car, telephone, etc)
  - health       (bad health, disabled etc)
  - accomodation (nr. Of rooms, etc)

Random effects. Fixed effects: B = -.054 (01)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.09 p < .01
B additionally controlled for:
- relative lack of
  - social life

Random effects. Fixed effects: B = -.052 (01)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.01 ns
B additionally controlled for:
- absolute lack of
  - facilities
  - durables
  - accomodation
  - health
  - social life

Random effects. Fixed effects: B = +.002 (ns)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.02 ns
B additionally controlled for:
- absolute lack of
  - social life

Random effects. Fixed effects: B = -.004 (ns)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Relative resources
Subject code: R02ab03

StudyCuesta & Budria (2011): study DE 2000
TitleDeprivation and Subjective Well-being: Evidence from Panel Data.
SourceEA Working Papers, 2011, No.8, UA Madrid, Spain
Public18+ aged, heads of households, Germany, 2000-2008
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =11000

Correlate
Author's labelDeprivation in facilities (relative)
Page in Source 37-40
Our classificationRelative resources, code R02ab03
Operationalization
Remarks
Deprivation variable: weighted average difference 
between those who are better off and respondent's own 
score.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.01 p < .05
PORBIT ADAPTED OLS

B controlled for:
- social characteristics
- personality traits
- relative lack of
  - income
  - savings
  - durables
  - accomodation
  - health

Random effects. Fixed effects: B = -.012 (05)

Not significant when B additionally controlled 
for:
- relative lack of
  - social life
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.02 ns
B additionally controlled for:
- absolute deprivation
  - facilities
  - durables
  - health

Random effects. Fixed effects: B = +.01 (ns)

No significant change when B additionally 
controlled for:
- absolute lack of
  - social life


Correlational finding on Happiness and Relative resources
Subject code: R02ab03

StudyCuesta & Budria (2011): study DE 2000
TitleDeprivation and Subjective Well-being: Evidence from Panel Data.
SourceEA Working Papers, 2011, No.8, UA Madrid, Spain
Public18+ aged, heads of households, Germany, 2000-2008
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =11000

Correlate
Author's labelDeprivation in durables (relative)
Page in Source 37-40
Our classificationRelative resources, code R02ab03
Operationalization
Remarks
Deprivation variable: weighted average difference 
between those who are better off and respondent's own 
score.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.02 p < .01
PORBIT ADAPTED OLS

B controlled for:
- social characteristics
- personality traits
- relative lack of
  - income
  - savings
  - facilities
  - accomodation
  - health

Fixed effects. Random effects: B = -.015 (05)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.02 p < .05
B additionally controlled for:
- relative lack of
  - social life

Fixed effects. Random effects: B = -.000 (ns)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.04 p < .05
B additionally controlled for:
- absolute lack of
  - facilities
  - durables
  - accomodation
  - health

Random effects. Fixed effects: B = -.021 (ns)

Not significant when B additionally controlled 
for:
- absolute lack of
  - social life


Correlational finding on Happiness and Relative resources
Subject code: R02ab03

StudyCuesta & Budria (2011): study DE 2000
TitleDeprivation and Subjective Well-being: Evidence from Panel Data.
SourceEA Working Papers, 2011, No.8, UA Madrid, Spain
Public18+ aged, heads of households, Germany, 2000-2008
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =11000

Correlate
Author's labelDeprivation in health (relative)
Page in Source 37-40
Our classificationRelative resources, code R02ab03
Operationalization
Remarks
Deprivation variable: weighted average difference 
between those who are better off and respondent's own 
score.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.15 p < .01
PORBIT ADAPTED OLS

B controlled for:
- social characteristics
- personality traits
- relative lack of
  - savings
  - income
  - facilities
  - durables
  - accomodation

Random effects. Fixed effects: B = -.133 (01)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.17 p < .01
B additionally controlled for:
- relative lack
  - social life

Random effects. Fixed effects: B = -.137 (01)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.04 p < .01
B additionally controlled for:
- absolute lack of
  - facilities
  - durables
  - accomodation
  - health


Fixed effects. Random effects: B = -.032 (ns)

Not significant when B additionally controlled 
for:
- absolute lack of
  - social life


Correlational finding on Happiness and Relative resources
Subject code: R02ab03

StudyCuesta & Budria (2011): study DE 2000
TitleDeprivation and Subjective Well-being: Evidence from Panel Data.
SourceEA Working Papers, 2011, No.8, UA Madrid, Spain
Public18+ aged, heads of households, Germany, 2000-2008
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =11000

Correlate
Author's labelDeprivation in accomodation (relative)
Page in Source 37-40
Our classificationRelative resources, code R02ab03
Operationalization
Remarks
Deprivation variable: weighted average difference 
between those who are better off and respondent's own 
score.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.02 p < .05
PORBIT ADAPTED OLS

B controlled for:
- social characteristics
- personality traits
- relative lack of
  - income
  - savings
  - facilities
  - durables
  - health

Random effects. Fixed effects: B = -.009 (ns)

Not significant when B additionally controlled 
for:
- relative lack of
  - social life
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.02 p < .01
B additionally controlled for:
- absolute lack of
  - facilities
  - durables
  - accomodation
  - health

Random effects. Fixed effects: B = -.016 (05)

Not significant when B additionally controlled 
for:
- absolute lack of
  - social life
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.02 p < .05
B additionally controlled for:
- absolute lack of
  - social life

Random effects. Fixed effects: B = -.009 (ns)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Relative resources
Subject code: R02ab03

StudyCuesta & Budria (2011): study DE 2000
TitleDeprivation and Subjective Well-being: Evidence from Panel Data.
SourceEA Working Papers, 2011, No.8, UA Madrid, Spain
Public18+ aged, heads of households, Germany, 2000-2008
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =11000

Correlate
Author's labelDeprivation in social relations (relative)
Page in Source 37-40
Our classificationRelative resources, code R02ab03
Operationalization
Remarks
Deprivation variable: weighted average difference 
between those who are better off and respondent's own 
score.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.05 p < .01
PORBIT ADAPTED OLS

B controlled for:
- social characteristics
- personality traits
- relative lack of
  - income
  - facilities
  - durables
  - accomodation
  - health

Random effects. Fixed effects: B = -.045 (01)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.04 p < .01
B additionally controlled for:
- absolute lack of
  - facilities
  - durables
  - accomodation
  - health

Fixed effects. Random effects: B = -.032 (05)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Relative resources
Subject code: R02ab03

StudyCuesta & Budria (2011): study DE 2000
TitleDeprivation and Subjective Well-being: Evidence from Panel Data.
SourceEA Working Papers, 2011, No.8, UA Madrid, Spain
Public18+ aged, heads of households, Germany, 2000-2008
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =11000

Correlate
Author's labelDeprivation in income (relative)
Page in Source 37-40
Our classificationRelative resources, code R02ab03
Operationalization
Remarks
Deprivation variable: weighted average difference 
between those who are better off and respondent's own 
score.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.04 p < .01
PORBIT ADAPTED OLS

B controlled for:
- social characteristics
  - age
  - gender
  - financial situation
  - education
  - household size
  - marital status
  - employment status
  - nationality
- personality traits
- relative lack of
  - savings
  - facilities   (bath, toilet, etc)
  - durables     (car, telephone, etc)
  - health       (bad health, disabled etc)
  - accomodation (nr. Of rooms, etc)

Random effects. Fixed effects: B = -.030 (.01)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.05 p < .01
B additionally controlled for:
- relative lack of
  - social life

Random effects. Fixed effects: B = -.050 (01)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.03 p < .01
B additionally controlled for:
- absolute lack of
  - facilities
  - durables
  - health

Random effects. Fixed effects: B = -.038 (01)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.04 p < .01
B additionally controlled for:
- absolute lack of
  - social life

Random effects. Fixed effects: B = -.039 (05)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Relative resources
Subject code: R02ab03

StudyGoswami (2014): study GB 2011
TitleChildren's Subjective Well-Being: Socio-Demographic Characteristics and Personality.
SourceChild Indicators Research, 2014, Vol. 7, 119 - 140
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs12187-013-9205-7
DOIDoi: 10.1007/s12187-013-9205-7
Public10-15 aged, schoolchildren, United Kingdom, 2011
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2400

Correlate
Author's labelDeprivation index
Page in Source 127
Our classificationRelative resources, code R02ab03
Operationalization
Self report of having or not:
a pocket money
b saving money
c branded trainers
d iPod or similar
e cable or satellite TV
f garden or similar
g acces to family car
h clothes to fit in with social peer groups
i annual family holiday
j monthly day trips

3 options for each item:
- I have this
- I do not have this but I would like it
- I do not have this and I do not want this

Index is created by adding together the number of items 
lacked and wanted resulting in a 0 to 10 scale.
Remarks
Deprivation index

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-CO-u-mq-v-5-ar=-.30 p < .00
M-CO-u-mq-v-5-aBeta=-.17 p < .00
Beta controled for
- gender
- disability
- learning difficulties
- ethnic background
- country of birth
- religion
- family structure


Correlational finding on Happiness and Relative resources
Subject code: R02ab03

StudyLiu et al. (2015a): study GB 1996
TitleDoes Happiness Itself directly affect Mortality? The prospective UK Million Women Study.
SourceThe Lancet, 2015
URLhttps://www.researchgate.net/publication/287372772_Does_happiness_itself_directly_affect_mortality_The_prospective_UK_Million_Women_Study
DOIdoi: 10.1016/50140-6736(15)01222-2
PublicFemale, aged 50-69, United Kingdom, 1996-2001
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1300000

Correlate
Author's labelDeprivation tertile
Page in Source 2
Our classificationRelative resources, code R02ab03
Operationalization
a: least deprived (reference)
b: middle tertile
c: most deprived

Details not reported

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-TH-u-sq-v-4-dOR=- p < .01
Middle tertile (vs. least):OR= 1.0 
CI99[0.964-0.990] 
Most deprived (vs. least): OR= 0.9 
CI99[0.875-0.898] 

OR's controlled for various factors (not reported)
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to own resources
Subject code: R02ac

StudyGodoy-Izquierdo et al. (2009): study ES 2007
TitleBalance Afectivo en Hombres y Mujeres: Implicaciones de la Edad y el Sexo. (Affect Balance amon Men and Women: Implications of Age and Sex).
SourceBehavioral Psychology/Psicologia Conductual, 2009, Vol. 17, 299 - 319
URLhttps://www.thefreelibrary.com/Balance+afectivo+en+hombres+y+mujeres%3A+implicaciones+de+la+edad+y+el...-a0314254938
PublicExercisers and non-exercisers, Spain, 200?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =205

Correlate
Author's labelPerceived contribution of personal strengths, skills and resourcs
Our classificationAttitudes to own resources, code R02ac
Operationalization
Self-rating in response to question: "Please, indicate 
the degree in which you think the following conditions 
contribute to your general happiness..."
.
. "personal strengths, skills and resources"
.
Rated on scale 0 (no influence) to 10 (complete 
influence)
Observed distributionExercisers: M: 7,38 SD: 1,65, Non-exercisers: M: 6,35 SD: 2,26
Remarks
Item in list of 20 conditions for happiness

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-cr=+.36 p < .01
Exercisers only (N=94)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to own resources
Subject code: R02ac

StudyGodoy-Izquierdo et al. (2009): study ES 2007
TitleBalance Afectivo en Hombres y Mujeres: Implicaciones de la Edad y el Sexo. (Affect Balance amon Men and Women: Implications of Age and Sex).
SourceBehavioral Psychology/Psicologia Conductual, 2009, Vol. 17, 299 - 319
URLhttps://www.thefreelibrary.com/Balance+afectivo+en+hombres+y+mujeres%3A+implicaciones+de+la+edad+y+el...-a0314254938
PublicExercisers and non-exercisers, Spain, 200?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =205

Correlate
Author's labelPerceived contribution of self-concept and self-esteem
Our classificationAttitudes to own resources, code R02ac
Operationalization
Self-rating in response to question: "Please, indicate 
the degree in which you think the following conditions 
contribute to your general happiness..."
.
. "self-concept and self-esteem"
.
Rated on scale 0 (no influence) to 10 (complete 
influence)
Observed distributionExercisers: M: 7,77 SD: 1,46, Non-exercisers: M: 7,22 SD: 2,06
Remarks
Item in list of 20 conditions for happines

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-cr=+.24 p < .05
Exercisers only (N=94)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to own resources
Subject code: R02ac

StudyGodoy-Izquierdo et al. (2009): study ES 2005
TitleBalance Afectivo en Hombres y Mujeres: Implicaciones de la Edad y el Sexo. (Affect Balance amon Men and Women: Implications of Age and Sex).
SourceBehavioral Psychology/Psicologia Conductual, 2009, Vol. 17, 299 - 319
URLhttps://www.thefreelibrary.com/Balance+afectivo+en+hombres+y+mujeres%3A+implicaciones+de+la+edad+y+el...-a0314254938
PublicPregnant women, Spain, 200?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =196

Correlate
Author's labelPerceived contribution of self-concept and self-esteem
Our classificationAttitudes to own resources, code R02ac
Operationalization
Self-rating in response to question: "Please, indicate 
the degree in which you think the following conditions 
contribute to your general happiness..."
.
. "self-concept and self-esteem"
.
Rated on scale 0 (no influence) to 10 (complete 
influence)
Observed distributionM: 6,88 SD: 1,91
Remarks
Item in list of 20 conditions for happines

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-cr=+.09 p < .22


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to own resources
Subject code: R02ac

StudyGodoy-Izquierdo et al. (2009): study ES 2005
TitleBalance Afectivo en Hombres y Mujeres: Implicaciones de la Edad y el Sexo. (Affect Balance amon Men and Women: Implications of Age and Sex).
SourceBehavioral Psychology/Psicologia Conductual, 2009, Vol. 17, 299 - 319
URLhttps://www.thefreelibrary.com/Balance+afectivo+en+hombres+y+mujeres%3A+implicaciones+de+la+edad+y+el...-a0314254938
PublicPregnant women, Spain, 200?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =196

Correlate
Author's labelPerceived contribution of personal strengths, skills and resourcs
Our classificationAttitudes to own resources, code R02ac
Operationalization
Self-rating in response to question: "Please, indicate 
the degree in which you think the following conditions 
contribute to your general happiness..."
.
. "personal strengths, skills and resources"
.
Rated on scale 0 (no influence) to 10 (complete 
influence)
Observed distributionM: 6,92 SD: 1,73
Remarks
Item in list of 20 conditions for happiness

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-cr=+.27 p < .01
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-cBeta=+.27 p < .01
M-FH-c-sq-n-11-bBeta=+.24 p < .01
Beta after accounting for perceived contribution 
to general happiness of:
- friends and social relationships
- faith, religion, ethics and moral values


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to own resources
Subject code: R02ac

StudyAnand et al. (2005): study GB 2000
TitleCapabilties and Well-Being: Evidence based on the Sen-Nussbaum Approach to Welfare.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2005, Vol. 74, 9 - 55
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-005-6518-z
Public16+ aged, general public, UK, 2000
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =12040

Correlate
Author's labelAfford holidays/new clothes/nourished
Page in Source 26-29
Our classificationAttitudes to own resources, code R02ac
Operationalization
Selfreport on 3 questions:
A Holiday
  Would you like to be able to pay for a week's annual 
holiday away from home, but must do without because you 
cannot afford it?
1: No
0: Yes

B Buy new clothes
  Would you like to be able to buy new, rather than 
second hand, clothes, but must do without because you 
cannot afford it?
1: No
0: Yes

C Nourished
  Would you like to be able to eat meat, chicken, fish 
at least every second day, but must do without because 
you cannot afford it?
1: No
0: Yes

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-bb=+.22 p < .01
Holiday
 -Females
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-bb=+.21 p < .01
 -Males
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-bb=+.12 p < .05
Buy new clothes
 -Females
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-bb=-.05 ns
 -Males
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-bb=+.17 p < .05
Nourished
 -Females
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-bb=+.24 p < .01
 -Males


B's controled for other aspects of capability:
- Opportunities for:
  - adequate nourishment
  - health limits
  - move to another house
  - car available
  - no vandalism or crime in the area
  - high education
- Mental problems: no more than usual
  - able to concentrate
  - sleep lost over worrying
  - feeling unhappy or depressed
  - strain
  - lose selfconfidence
- Control over life: no less than usual
  - capable of making decisions
  - able to overcome difficulties
  - able to face up to problems
- Being respected, no less than usual
  - think of yourself as worthless
  - played a usefull part in things
- Enjoy; no less tha usual
  - felt happy
  - enjoyed day-to-day activities
- Participate in society
  - able to work
- Satisfaction with life domains
  (residual variation: proxi for personality)
  - job
  - partner
  - health
  - house
  - household income
  - social life
  - leisure


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to own resources
Subject code: R02ac

StudyZautra (1975): study US Utah 1970
TitleQuality of Life: The Communication of Satisfaction.
SourcePhD Dissertation, University of Utah, 1975, USA
Public18+ aged, men and women, Salt Lake County, USA, 1973-1974
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =454

Correlate
Author's labelEconomic Well-Being
Page in Source 58,67
Our classificationAttitudes to own resources, code R02ac
Operationalization
Factors derived from responses on the following 
questions:
a How do you feel about your standard of living …?
b How do you feel about your house or apartment?
c How do you feel about the income you have and your 
family have?
d Positive affect
e How do you feel about yourself, what you are 
accomplishing, and how you handle problems?

Rated
1 terrible
2 unhappy
3 mostly dissatisfied
4 mixed
5 mostly satisfied
6 pleased
7 delighted
Observed distributionPositvie
Remarks
Factor 12

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=+.34 ns
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=+.32 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to own resources
Subject code: R02ac

StudyZautra (1975): study US Utah 1970
TitleQuality of Life: The Communication of Satisfaction.
SourcePhD Dissertation, University of Utah, 1975, USA
Public18+ aged, men and women, Salt Lake County, USA, 1973-1974
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =454

Correlate
Author's labelResource Preferences
Page in Source 58,81
Our classificationAttitudes to own resources, code R02ac
Operationalization
Factors derived from topics mentioned in response to 
open questions on responsibilities, concerns and 
resources
a Escape from troubles
b Family resources
c Social environment difficulties
d Responsiveness (number of daily activities)

Rated
1 terrible
2 unhappy
3 mostly dissatisfied
4 mixed
5 mostly satisfied
6 pleased
7 delighted
Remarks
Factor 10.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-ar=-.02 ns
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=+.07 ns


Appendices

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used

CodeFull Text
A-AOL-g-sq-v-3-bSelfreport on single question :

"In general, how would you say you feel most of the time, in good spirits or in low spirits....?"
1 low
2 both
3 good
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aSelfreport on 10 questions:

During the past few weeks, did you ever feel ....? (yes/no)
A Particularly exited or interested in something?
B So restless that you couldn't sit long in a chair?
C Proud because someone complimented you on something
you had done?
D Very lonely or remote from other people?
E Pleased about having accomplished something?
F Bored?
G On top of the world?
H Depressed or very unhappy?
I That things were going your way?
J Upset because someone criticized you?

Answer options and scoring:
yes = 1
no = 0
Summation:
-Positive Affect Score (PAS): A+C+E+G+I
-Negative Affect Score (NAS): B+D+F+H+J
-Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS
Possible range: -5 to +5

Name: Bradburn's 'Affect Balance Scale' (standard version)
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-dSelfreport on 8 questions.

"During the past week, did you ever feel.....?"
A very lonely
B restless
C bored
D depressed
E on top of the world
F exited or interested
G pleased about accomplishment
H proud

Answer options:
1 never
2 once
3 several times
4 often

Summation:
-Positive Affect Score (PAS): E+F+G+H
-Negative Affect Score (NAS): A+B+C+D
-Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS-NAS+13

Name: Bradburn's Affect Balance Scale (modified version)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aSelfreport on single question:

Here is a picture of a ladder. Suppose we say that the top of the ladder represents the best possible life for you and the bottom represents the worst possible life for you. Where on the ladder do you feel you personally stand at the present time?
[ 10 ] best possible life
[ 9 ]
[ 8 ]
[ 7 ]
[ 6 ]
[ 5 ]
[ 4 ]
[ 3 ]
[ 2 ]
[ 1 ]
[ 0 ] worst possible life


Preceded by 1) open questions about what the respondent imagines as the best possible life and the worst possible life. 2) ratings on the ladder of one's life five years ago and where on the ladder one expects to stand five years from now.

Name: Cantril's self anchoring ladder rating of life (original)
M-CO-u-mq-v-5-aSelfreport on 5 statements:

A My life is going well
B My life is just right
C I wish I had a different kind of life
D I have a good life
E I have what I want in life

Rated
0 strongly disagree
1
2
3
4 strongly agree

Shortened Huebner's BMSLSS 'Multidimensional Student Life satisfaction Scale'
(Items left out from orininal scale are: "My life is better than most young people's" and "I would like to change things in my life)
M-FH-c-sq-n-11-bSelf-reported single question:

How happy do you feel currently, in the last few days or weeks?
0 very unhappy
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 very happy
M-FH-g-sq-n-11-cSelf-reported single question:

How happy do you usually feel, along your life?
0 very unhappy
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 very happy

This question is preceeded by the following question: How happy do you feel currently, in the last few days or weeks?
M-FH-g-sq-v-2-bSelfreport on single question

Do you usually feel unhappy or depressed?
1 yes
2 no

part of 8 item inventory of stress symptoms
M-TH-u-sq-v-4-dSelfreport on single question:

How often do you feel happy?
4 most of the time
3 usually
2 sometimes
1 rarely/never
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aSelfreport on single question, asked twice in interview:

How do you feel about your life as a whole......?
7 delighted
6 pleased
5 mostly satisfied
4 mixed
3 mostly dissatisfied
2 unhappy
1 terrible

Summation: arithmetic mean

Name: Andrews & Withey's "Delighted-Terrible Scale" (original version)
Also known as Lehman's 'Global lifesatisfaction'
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-bSelfreport on single question, asked twice in interview:

How do you feel about your life as a whole......?
7 could not be better
6
5
4
3
2
1 could not be worse

Summation: arithmetic mean

Name: Andrews & Withey's "Delighted-Terrible Scale" (original version).
Also known as Lehman's 'Global lifesatisfaction'
O-HL-?-sq-n-11-aSelfreport on single question:


"overall happiness.."(full question not reported
10 my life is very happy
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 my life is very unhappy
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aSelfreport on single question:

Taking all together, how would you say things are these days? Would you say you are .....?
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-bcSelfreport on single question:

All in all, how much happiness do you find in life today....?
1 almost none
2 some but not very much
3 a good deal
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-cbSelfreport on single question:

In general, how happy are you these days .....?
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aSelfreport on single question

To what extent do you consider yourself a happy person....?
5 very happy
4 happy
3 neither happy nor unhappy
2 not very happy
1 unhappy
O-SLL-c-sq-v-4-cSelfreport on single question:

On the whole, how satisfied would you say you are with your way of life today? Would you say you are........?
4 very satisfied
3 fairly satisfied
2 not very satisfied
1 not at all satisfied
O-SLL-u-sq-v-4-aSelfrport on single question:

On the whole are you with the life you lead?
4 satisfied
3 rather satisfied
2 as yet unsatisfied
1 unbearably dissatisfied
O-SLu-g-sq-v-4-eSelfreport on single question

In general, how satisfied are you with your life?
1 very dissatisfied
2 dissatisfied
3 satisfied
4 very satisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-ceSelfreport on single question:

At present, how satisfied are you, all in all, with your life in general?
0 very unsatisfied
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 very satisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dSelfreport on single question:

Taking all things together, how satisfied are you with your life these days? Please answer with the help of this scale. For instance, when you are totally satisfied with your life, please tick '10'. When you are totally unsatisfied with your life, please tick '0'. You may use all values in between to indicate that you are neither totally satisfied nor totally unsatisfied."
10 totally satisfied
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 totally unsatisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-bSelfreport on single question

Here are some questions about how you feel about your life. Please tick the number which you feel best describes how dissatisfied or satisfied you are with the following aspects of your current situation…
Your life as a whole.
1 not satisfied at all
2
3
4
5
6
7 completely satisfied

Last item in a list of domain satisfactions


Appendix 2: Statistics used

SymbolExplanation
aFACTOR LOADING
Type: descriptive statistic
A factor loading is the correlation coefficient between an observed variable and a factor in the underlying Factor Analysis Model.
Range: [-1, +1]

Meaning:
A high factor loading means that the factor is very similar to that observed variable.
bREGRESSION COEFFICIENT (non-standardized) by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: unlimited

Meaning:
b > 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a higher happiness rating on average.
B < 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a lower happiness rating on average.
B = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate.
Beta STANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENT by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic.

Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric.
Range: [-1 ; +1]

Meaning:
beta > 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta < 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta = 0 « no correlation.
beta = + 1 or -1 « perfect correlation.
DMDIFFERENCE of MEANS
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Range: depending on the happiness rating scale of the author; range symmetric about zero.

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness, as measured on the author's rating scale, between the two correlate levels.
GGOODMAN & Kruskal's GAMMA
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: ordinal, Happinessl: ordinal
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
G = 0 « no rank correlation
G = +1 « strongest possible rank correlation, where high correlate values correspond to high happiness ratings.
G = -1 « strongest possible rank correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness ratings.
MAoVMULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS of VARIANCE (MANOVA)
Type: statistical procedure.
Multivariate Analysis of Variance is very similar to the ordinary Analysis of Variance (AoV). The ’multivariate’ difference is that more than one response variable, i.c. SWB measure, is involved. This technique is meaningful only if the response variables are correlated, which in happiness studies generally will be the case. Mathematically, the input SWB data is not a column vector but a matrix. An equivalent of the F-test for significant differences between the correlate levels is e.g. Hotelling’s T²-test.

Ref: Morrison, D.F., Multivariate Statistical Methods, McGrawHill, New York (1976²).
ORODDS RATIO
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness level: dichotomous
Range: nonnegative unlimited

Meaning:
OR = 1 « no association at all;
OR = 0 or infinite « at least one level of the correlate allows an error-free prediction of the happiness.
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 « no correlation ,
r = 1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
rpcPARTIAL CORRELATION COEFFICIENT
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning: a partial correlation between happiness and one of the correlates is that correlation, which remains after accounting for the contribution of the other influences, or some of them, to the total variability in the happiness scores.
Under that conditions
rpc > 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds with a higher happiness rating,
rpc < 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds with a lower happiness rating,
COEFFICIENT of DETERMINATION
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [0; 1]

Meaning:
R² = 0 « no influence of any correlate in this study has been established.
R² = 1 « the correlates determine the happiness completely.
tbKENDALL'S RANK CORRELATION COEFFICIENT TAU-B
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: ordinal, Happiness: ordinal
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
tb = 0 « no rank correlation
tb = 1 « perfect rank correlation, where high values of the correlate correspond with high happiness ratings.
tb = -1 « perfect rank correlation, where high values of the correlate correspond with low happiness ratings.


Appendix 3: About the World Database of Happiness

Structure of the collections

The World Database of Happiness is an archive of research findings on subjective enjoyment of life .
It brings together findings that are scattered throughout many studies and provides a basis for synthetic work.

World literature on subjective wellbeing


Selection on fit with definition of happiness

Bibliography    and     Directory    

Selection of empirical studies and within these on valid measurement: Happiness measures
Abstracting and classification of findings

How happy people are, distributional findings What goes together with happiness

Happiness in nations
Happiness in regions
Happiness in publics
Correlational findings

  Listing of comparable findings in nations  
States of nations   ,   Trends in nations


Size of the collections
12061 publications in Bibliography of happiness, of which 6298 report an empirical study that is eligible for inclusion in the findings archive.
1152 measures of happiness, mostly single survey questions varying in wording and response scale.
12311 distributional findings in the general public, of which 8552 in 173 nations (former nations and de facto nations included) and 3759 findings in 2455 regions and cities in nations.
2124 studies with findings in 160 specific publics.
15579 correlational findings observed in 2062 studies, excerpted from 1588 publications.

Appendix 4 Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness

Main Subjects Subject Description Number of Studies
A01ACTIVITY (how much one does)56
A02ACTIVITY: PATTERN (what one does)120
A03AFFECTIVE LIFE82
A04AGE686
A05AGGRESSION14
A06ANOMY33
A07APPEARANCE (good looks)24
A08ATTITUDES12
A09AUTHORITARIANISM4
B01BIRTH CONTROL0
B02BIRTH HISTORY (own birth)205
B03BODY105
C01CHILDREN12
C02CHILDREN: WANT FOR (Parental aspirations)13
C03CHILDREN: HAVING (parental status)318
C04CHILDREN: CHARACTERISTICS OF ONE'S CHILDREN37
C05CHILDREN: RELATION WITH ONE'S CHILDREN19
C06CHILDREN: REARING OF ONE'S CHILDREN (parental behavior)35
C07COMMUNAL LIVING16
C08CONCERNS46
C09CONSUMPTION119
C10COPING64
C11CREATIVENESS7
C12CRIME2
C13CULTURE (Arts and Sciences)49
D01DAILY JOYS & HASSLES7
D02DISASTER1
E01EDUCATION533
E02EMPLOYMENT 815
E03ETHNICITY173
E04EXPRESSIVE BEHAVIOR12
F01FAMILY OF ORIGIN (earlier family for adults, current for young)331
F02FAMILY OF PROCREATION106
F03FAMILY OF RELATIVES192
F04FARMING66
F05FREEDOM56
F06FRIENDSHIP240
G01GENDER640
G02GRIEF1
H01HABITS2
H02HANDICAP49
H03HAPPINESS: VIEWS ON HAPPINESS121
H04HAPPINESS: DISPERSION OF HAPPINESS19
H05HAPPINESS: CAREER227
H06HAPINNESS: EFFECT OF CONDITIONS FOR HAPPINESS1
H07HAPPINESS: CORRESPONDENCE OF DIFFERENT MEASURES346
H08HAPPINESS OF OTHERS6
H09HAPPINESS: REPUTATION OF HAPPINESS26
H10HEALTH-BEHAVIOR50
H11HELPING16
H12HOPE36
H13HOUSEHOLD: COMPOSITION255
H14HOUSEHOLD: WORK49
H15HOUSING270
I01INCOME1077
I02INSTITUTIONAL LIVING44
I03INTELLIGENCE86
I04INTERESTS17
I05INTERVIEW 87
I06INTIMACY147
L01LANGUAGE18
L02LEADERSHIP14
L03LEISURE330
L04LIFE APPRAISALS: OTHER THAN HAPPINESS463
L05LIFE CHANGE71
L06LIFE EVENTS140
L07LIFE GOALS119
L08LIFE HISTORY11
L09LIFE STYLE 40
L10LOCAL ENVIRONMENT710
L11LOTTERY13
L12LOVE-LIFE44
M01MARRIAGE: MARITAL STATUS CAREER109
M02MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS887
M03MARRIAGE: RELATIONSHIP155
M04MARRIAGE: PARTNER82
M05MEANING31
M06MEDICAL TREATMENT107
M07MENTAL HEALTH308
M08MIGRATION: TO OTHER COUNTRY98
M09MIGRATION: MOVING WITHIN COUNTRY (residential mobility)49
M10MIGRATION: MIGRANT WORK5
M11MILITARY LIFE14
M12MODERNITY5
M13MOOD340
M14MOTIVATION21
M15MOBILITY21
N01NATION: NATIONALITY70
N02NATION: ERA (temporal period)124
N03NATION: NATIONAL CHARACTER (modal personality)75
N04NATION: CONDITION IN ONE'S NATION1054
N05NATION: POSITION OF ONE'S NATION16
N06NATION: ATTITUDES TO ONES NATION209
N07NATION: LIVABILITY OF ONE'S NATION63
N08NATION: ATTITUDINAL CLIMATE17
N09NATION: REGION137
N10NUTRITION54
N11NATION: AREA2
O01OCCUPATION224
O02ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION17
P01PERSONALITY: HISTORY56
P02PERSONALITY: CHANGE11
P03PERSONALITY: CURRENT ORGANIZATION10
P04PERSONALITY: CURRENT TRAITS722
P05PERSONALITY: LATER21
P06PHYSICAL HEALTH 829
P07PLANNING11
P08POLITICAL BEHAVIOUR285
P09POPULARITY30
P10POSSESSIONS156
P11PRISON3
P12PROBLEMS30
P13PSYCHO-SOMATIC COMPLAINTS63
P14PETS4
R01RELIGION427
R02RESOURCES33
R03RETIREMENT154
R04ROLES31
S01SCHOOL208
S02SELF-IMAGE313
S03SEX-LIFE77
S04SLEEP17
S05SOCIAL MOBILITY25
S06SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: PERSONAL CONTACTS99
S07SOCIAL PARTICIPATION : VOLUNTARY ASSOCIATIONS152
S08SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: TOTAL (personal + associations)54
S09SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS191
S10SOCIAL SUPPORT: RECEIVED117
S11SOCIAL SUPPORT: PROVIDED24
S12SPORTS69
S13STIMULANTS93
S14SUICIDE10
S15SUMMED DETERMINANTS168
T01TIME 106
T02THERAPY58
T03TOLERANCE39
T05TRUST47
V01VALUES: CAREER6
V02VALUES: CURRENT PREFERENCES (own)164
V03VALUES: CLIMATE (current values in environment)13
V04VALUES: SIMILARITY (current fit with others)13
V05VALUES: LIVING UP TO18
V06VICTIM 32
W01WAR7
W02WISDOM1
W03WORK: CAREER1
W04WORK: CONDITIONS127
W05WORK: ATTITUDES412
W06WORK: PERFORMANCE (current)40
W07WORRIES57
X01UNCLASSIFIED34


Appendix 5: Related Subjects

SubjectRelated Subject(s)
R02RESOURCESA07APPEARANCE (good looks)
R02RESOURCESE01EDUCATION
R02RESOURCESE02EMPLOYMENT
R02RESOURCESF06FRIENDSHIP
R02RESOURCESI01INCOME
R02RESOURCESI03INTELLIGENCE
R02RESOURCESM07MENTAL HEALTH
R02RESOURCESP06PHYSICAL HEALTH
R02RESOURCESP09POPULARITY
R02RESOURCESS09SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS
R02RESOURCESS10SOCIAL SUPPORT: RECEIVED
R02RESOURCESW07ab01Amount of worrying
R02abCurrent resourcesA03ab02Intensity of affects
R02abCurrent resourcesS15SUMMED DETERMINANTS
R02ab01Personal qualitiesI03INTELLIGENCE
R02ab01Personal qualitiesM07MENTAL HEALTH
R02ab01Personal qualitiesP06PHYSICAL HEALTH
R02ab01Personal qualitiesW02WISDOM
R02ab03Relative resourcesC09ab01bRelative level to others
R02ab03Relative resourcesI01aeRelative income
R02ab03Relative resourcesL04ae01dLife compared with situation of others

A report of the World Database of Happiness, Correlational Findings