Findings on Happiness and ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION

World Database of Happiness

Correlational Findings on Happiness and ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION
Subject Code: O02

© on data collection: Ruut Veenhoven, Erasmus University Rotterdam

Classification of Findings
Subject Code Description Nr of Studies
on this Subject
O02ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION0
O02aaOrgan donation0
O02aa01Consent with donation after death0
O02aa02Actual donation of organ during life1
O02abOrgan reception0
O02ab01Want for organ transplantation1
O02ab02Actual transplantation9
O02acAttitudes to organ-transplantation2
O02ac01Attitudes to organ-donation4
O02ac02Attitudes to organ-reception0
 
Appendices
Appendix 1Happiness measures used 
Appendix 2Statistics used 
Appendix 3About the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 4Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 5Related Subjects 

Cite as:    Veenhoven, R.: Findings on Happiness and ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION
World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings
Internet: http://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/top_sub.php?code=O02
Erasmus University Rotterdam, 2018, Netherlands

Correlational finding on Happiness and Actual donation of organ during life
Subject code: O02aa02

StudySimmons et al. (1977): study US 1970 /1
TitleGift of Life: The Social and Psychological Impact of Organ Transplantation.
SourceWiley, 1977, London, UK
PublicKidney donors followed before and after donation, USA, 1970-1973
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =133

Correlate
Author's labelKidney donation
Page in Source 182
Our classificationActual donation of organ during life, code O02aa02
Operationalization
Change in happiness before and aftertransplantation.
T1: pretransplant during selection 
    check.
T3: 1 yr after transplant

Difference at T3 with controls:
- non-donor recipients
- national population USA 1965
  (reported in BRADB 1969)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaG=+.03 ns
O-SLW-c-sq-v-3-cG=+.13 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-v-3-cDMt=+0.9
CHANGE in lifesatisfaction
            complete    pretty    not    Mt'
donors T1   26%         64%       10%    5.8
donors T3   37%         59%        4%    6.7
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaDMt=+1.5
CHANGE in happiness
                very   pretty   not too   Mt'
- donors T1      34%    58%      8%       6.3
- donors T3      60%    35%      5%       7.8


Difference with:
M-AO-g-mq-v-5-aDMt= 1.9
T1-T2 change
      17% had become less happy
      35% had not changed
      48% had become more happy
O-SLW-c-sq-v-3-cDMt=+0.9
CHANGE in lifesatisfaction
            complete    pretty    not    Mt'
donors T1   26%         64%       10%    5.8
donors T3   37%         59%        4%    6.7
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaDMt=+1.5
CHANGE in happiness:
                very   pretty    not too    Mt'
- donors T1     34%    58%         8%       6.3
- donors T3     60%    35%         5%       7.8


Difference with:
O-SLW-c-sq-v-3-cG=+.13 p < .001
M-AO-g-mq-v-5-aG=+.35 p < .02
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaG=+.03 p < .001
M-AO-g-mq-v-5-aDMt= 1.2
T1-T3 change
O-SLW-c-sq-v-3-cDMt=+1.2
difference with recipients T3
            19%         71%       10%    5.5

Donor were already more satisfied than controls at 
T3 and became even more satisfied.
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaDMt=+1.8
- recipients T3 26%    68%         5%       6.0
O-SLW-c-sq-v-3-cG=+.42 p < .001
M-AO-g-mq-v-5-aG=+.29 p < .02
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaG=+.48 p < .001
M-AO-g-mq-v-5-aDMt= 1.2
T1-T3 change
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaDMt=+1.8
- recipients T3  26%    68%      5%      6.0
O-SLW-c-sq-v-3-cDMt=+1.2
Difference with recipients T3
            19%         71%       10%    5.5

Donor were already more satisfied than controls at 
T3 and became even more satisfied.
O-SLW-c-sq-v-3-cG=+.42 p < .001
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaG=+.48 p < .001
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaDMt=+2.1
- population US  30%    53%     17%       5.7
Donors were already somewhat happier than controls 
at T1, but became much happier at T3
M-AO-g-mq-v-5-aG=-.05 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Want for organ transplantation
Subject code: O02ab01

StudyHicks et al. (2004): study US 1997
TitleDifferences in Health-Related Quality of Life and Treatment Preferences among Black and white Patiens with End-Stage Final Disease.
SourceQuality of Life Research, 2004, Vol. 13, 1129 - 1137
DOIDOI:10.1023/B:QURE.0000031350.56924.cc
Public18-54 aged, dialysed patients, USA,1997
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response17,1%
Respondents N =1392

Correlate
Author's labelPreference for transplantation
Page in Source 1134
Our classificationWant for organ transplantation, code O02ab01
Operationalization
Selfreport
Question not reported

1: want transplant
0: other

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AB-cm-mq-v-6-aD%=+ p < .78
                      happy      unhappy
1: want transplant    80,4%       78,4% 
0: other              19,6%       21,6%
A-AB-cm-mq-v-6-aChiČ=0.72 p < .40


Correlational finding on Happiness and Actual transplantation
Subject code: O02ab02

StudyMorris & Jones (1989): study AT 1984
TitleLife Satisfaction across Treatment Methods for Patients with End-Stage Renal Failure.
SourceThe Medical Journal of Australia, 1989, Vol. 150,428 - 432
PublicEndstage renal patients, U.K. 198?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response13%
Respondents N =160

Correlate
Author's labelRenal transplant
Page in Source 430
Our classificationActual transplantation, code O02ab02
Operationalization
1: Transplant recipients
0: All dialysis patients
Observed distributionN = 1: 69, : 0:69

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-n-10-aDM=+ p < .01
1: Transplant recipients M = 7.9 CI95[6.8-9.0]
0: Dialysis patients     M = 6.9 CI95[5.7-8.1]
difference                  +1,0


Correlational finding on Happiness and Actual transplantation
Subject code: O02ab02

StudyMorris & Jones (1989): study AT 1984
TitleLife Satisfaction across Treatment Methods for Patients with End-Stage Renal Failure.
SourceThe Medical Journal of Australia, 1989, Vol. 150,428 - 432
PublicEndstage renal patients, U.K. 198?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response13%
Respondents N =160

Correlate
Author's labelTreatment for renal failure
Page in Source 430
Our classificationActual transplantation, code O02ab02
Operationalization
Treatment:
a: Transplant recipients(Tx)
b: Home hemodialysis (HHD) 
c: Hospital center hemodialysis(CHD)
d: Patients at Renal Unit (CAPD)
Observed distributionN = a : 69, b: 24, c: 24, d: 21

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-n-10-aDM=
Renal Tranplant           M=7.9 CI95[6.8-9.0]
Haemodialysis at home     M=7.0 CI95[6.15-7.85]
Haemodialysis in hospital M=6.4 CI95[4.9-7.9]
Continuous ambulatory     M=7.3 CI95[6.3-8.3]
peritonieal dialysis


Correlational finding on Happiness and Actual transplantation
Subject code: O02ab02

StudyDe Castro et al. (2007): study ES Madrid 2004
TitlePsychological Well-Being in Adults Transplanted in Childhood.
SourcePediatric Transplantation, 2007, Vol. 11, 272 - 278
URLhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17430482
DOIDOI: 10.1111/j.1399-3046.2006.00648.x
Public18-22 aged transplant patients, Spain, 2004
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =24

Correlate
Author's labelTransplantation
Page in Source 274
Our classificationActual transplantation, code O02ab02
Operationalization
a kidney 
b heart
c liver
Observed distributionN: kidney 13; heart 5; liver 6

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BW-?-mq-v-5-aDM=
Kidney M=26.8
Heart  M=29.8
Liver  M=25.9


Correlational finding on Happiness and Actual transplantation
Subject code: O02ab02

StudySimmons et al. (1988): study US 1980
TitleQuality of Life after Kidney Transplantation.
SourceTransplantation, 1988, Vol. 45, 415 - 421
PublicRenal patients, 1-year post transplant, USA 1980-84
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response19%
Respondents N =113

Correlate
Author's labelTransplant drug regime
Page in Source 417
Our classificationActual transplantation, code O02ab02
Operationalization
1: cyclosporine
0: conventional
Observed distributionConventinal N= 40 Cyclosporine N= 51

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO-u-mq-v-5-aDM=+ p < .10
Conventional therapy M= 3.47
Cyclosporine therapy M= 4.18
Difference             +0.71
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaDM=+ p < .05
Conventional therapy M= 2.07
Cyclosporine therapy M= 2.39
Difference             -0.22
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-aDM=+ p < .05
Conventional therapy M= 5.32
Cyclosporine therapy M= 5.88
Difference             -0.56


Correlational finding on Happiness and Actual transplantation
Subject code: O02ab02

StudySimmons et al. (1977): study US 1972 /1
TitleGift of Life: The Social and Psychological Impact of Organ Transplantation.
SourceWiley, 1977, London, UK
Public8-20 aged renal (ex-)patients and controls, USA, 1972-1973
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =144

Correlate
Author's labelRenal transplantation_A
Page in Source 99
Our classificationActual transplantation, code O02ab02
Operationalization
0 chronically ill children
1 transplanted children

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO-g-mq-v-5-ar=-.22 p < .05
M-AO-g-mq-v-5-aG=+.10 ns
M-AO-g-mq-v-5-atc=+.10 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Actual transplantation
Subject code: O02ab02

StudySimmons et al. (1977): study US 1972 /1
TitleGift of Life: The Social and Psychological Impact of Organ Transplantation.
SourceWiley, 1977, London, UK
Public8-20 aged renal (ex-)patients and controls, USA, 1972-1973
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =144

Correlate
Author's labelRenal transplantation_B
Our classificationActual transplantation, code O02ab02
Operationalization
0 controls (Baltimore school children)
1 transplanted children

0 controls (siblings, normal)
1 transplanted children

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO-g-mq-v-5-aG=+.15 p < .05
M-AO-g-mq-v-5-aG=+.20 p < .01
M-AO-g-mq-v-5-atc=+.04 ns

M-AO-g-mq-v-5-aG=+.21 p < .001
M-AO-g-mq-v-5-aG=+.15 p < .05
M-AO-g-mq-v-5-atc=+.10 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Actual transplantation
Subject code: O02ab02

StudySimmons et al. (1977): study US 1970
TitleGift of Life: The Social and Psychological Impact of Organ Transplantation.
SourceWiley, 1977, London, UK
PublicAdult renal patients, followed before and after transplant, USA, 1970-73
Sample
Non-Response15%
Respondents N =178

Correlate
Author's labelRenal transplantation_C
Page in Source 182
Our classificationActual transplantation, code O02ab02
Operationalization
0 T1: pretransplant
1 T2: one year posttransplant

Happiness of renal patients assessed at:
T1: 5 days prior to the scheduled      
    transplant or after their names    
    were added to the waiting list 
T2: a year after the transplant

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaD%=_
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaG=+.65 p < .01
Happiness at:           T1      T2
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aatc=+.44 p < .01
    not too happy       25%      7%
    pretty happy        58%     36%
    very happy          18%     57%


Correlational finding on Happiness and Actual transplantation
Subject code: O02ab02

StudySimmons et al. (1977): study US 1970
TitleGift of Life: The Social and Psychological Impact of Organ Transplantation.
SourceWiley, 1977, London, UK
PublicAdult renal patients, followed before and after transplant, USA, 1970-73
Sample
Non-Response15%
Respondents N =178

Correlate
Author's labelRenal transplantation_A
Our classificationActual transplantation, code O02ab02
Operationalization
0 controls (adult population USA)
1 recipients, 1 year posttransplant(T2)

0 controls (relatives of recipients
  who did not donate a kidney, 
  posttransplant)
1 recipients, 1 year posttransplant(T2)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaG=+.30 p < .01
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aatc=+.05 p < .01
% very happy:
- controls
  - population USA ± 33
  - relatives        26
- recipients         57
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaG=+.46 p < .01
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aatc=+.28 p < .01


Correlational finding on Happiness and Actual transplantation
Subject code: O02ab02

StudySimmons et al. (1977): study US 1970
TitleGift of Life: The Social and Psychological Impact of Organ Transplantation.
SourceWiley, 1977, London, UK
PublicAdult renal patients, followed before and after transplant, USA, 1970-73
Sample
Non-Response15%
Respondents N =178

Correlate
Author's labelEarlier happiness
Our classificationActual transplantation, code O02ab02
Operationalization
0 T1: pretransplant
1 T2: one year posttransplant

Happiness of renal patients assessed at:
T1: 5 days prior to the scheduled
    transplant or after their names
    were added to the waiting list
T2: a year after the transplant

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar=+.46 p < .001
% happy:
- diabetical patients:     T1:  9%   T2: 72%
- non diabetical patients: T1: 37%   T2: 81%


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to organ-transplantation
Subject code: O02ac

StudyHicks et al. (2004): study US 1997
TitleDifferences in Health-Related Quality of Life and Treatment Preferences among Black and white Patiens with End-Stage Final Disease.
SourceQuality of Life Research, 2004, Vol. 13, 1129 - 1137
DOIDOI:10.1023/B:QURE.0000031350.56924.cc
Public18-54 aged, dialysed patients, USA,1997
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response17,1%
Respondents N =1392

Correlate
Author's labelPreference for transplantation
Page in Source 1134
Our classificationAttitudes to organ-transplantation, code O02ac
Operationalization
Selfreport
Question not reported

1: want transplant
0: other

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AB-cm-mq-v-6-aD%=+ p < .78
                      happy      unhappy
1: want transplant    80,4%       78,4% 
0: other              19,6%       21,6%
A-AB-cm-mq-v-6-aChiČ=0.72 p < .40


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to organ-transplantation
Subject code: O02ac

StudyHicks et al. (2004): study US 1997
TitleDifferences in Health-Related Quality of Life and Treatment Preferences among Black and white Patiens with End-Stage Final Disease.
SourceQuality of Life Research, 2004, Vol. 13, 1129 - 1137
DOIDOI:10.1023/B:QURE.0000031350.56924.cc
Public18-54 aged, dialysed patients, USA,1997
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response17,1%
Respondents N =1392

Correlate
Author's labelVery certain of preference for transplantation
Page in Source 1134
Our classificationAttitudes to organ-transplantation, code O02ac
Operationalization
Selfreport
Question not reported

1 very certain
0 other
Observed distributionunhappy:N=648; happy:N=744

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AB-cm-mq-v-6-aD%=+ p < .30
                  happy      unhappy
1 very certain    66,7%       64.0%
0 other           33,3%       36.0%
A-AB-cm-mq-v-6-aChiČ=0.94 p < .33


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to organ-donation
Subject code: O02ac01

StudySimmons et al. (1977): study US 1970 /1
TitleGift of Life: The Social and Psychological Impact of Organ Transplantation.
SourceWiley, 1977, London, UK
PublicKidney donors followed before and after donation, USA, 1970-1973
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =133

Correlate
Author's labelAmbivalence about kidney donation
Page in Source 192
Our classificationAttitudes to organ-donation, code O02ac01
Operationalization
7-item index of closed questions

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaG=+.44 p < .001
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar= ns
Happiness as assessed at T1 (pre-transplant)
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaG=+.07 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to organ-donation
Subject code: O02ac01

StudySimmons et al. (1977): study US 1970 /1
TitleGift of Life: The Social and Psychological Impact of Organ Transplantation.
SourceWiley, 1977, London, UK
PublicKidney donors followed before and after donation, USA, 1970-1973
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =133

Correlate
Author's labelNegative reaction to kidney donation
Page in Source 192
Our classificationAttitudes to organ-donation, code O02ac01
Operationalization
Amount of negative feelings towards donation one year 
after.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO-g-mq-v-5-aG=+.35 p < .02
M-AO-g-mq-v-5-ar=-.27 p < .005
Happiness as assessed before transplant (T1).
Least happy donors at T1 report most negative 
feelings at T3.
M-AO-g-mq-v-5-aG=+.29 p < .02
M-AO-g-mq-v-5-aG=-.05 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to organ-donation
Subject code: O02ac01

StudySimmons et al. (1977): study US 1970 /1
TitleGift of Life: The Social and Psychological Impact of Organ Transplantation.
SourceWiley, 1977, London, UK
PublicKidney donors followed before and after donation, USA, 1970-1973
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =133

Correlate
Author's labelAmbivalence towards donation
Page in Source 192
Our classificationAttitudes to organ-donation, code O02ac01
Operationalization
7-item index of close questions.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaG=+.03 ns
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aar= ns
Happiness as assessed at T1 (pre-transplant).
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaG=+.48 p < .001


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to organ-donation
Subject code: O02ac01

StudySimmons et al. (1974): study US 1969
TitleWho signs an organ donor-card: Traditionalism versus transplantation.
SourceJournal of Chronic Diseases, 1974, Vol. 27, 491- 502
URLhttp://www.researchgate.net/publication/222126899_Who_signs_an_organ_transplant_donor_card_A_study_of_personality_and_individual_differences_in_a_sample_of_Israeli_university_students
PublicSigners of organ-donor cards (and controls), USA, 1969
Sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =75

Correlate
Author's labelWillingness to organ donation
Page in Source 63
Our classificationAttitudes to organ-donation, code O02ac01
Operationalization
0 non-signers (neighbour controls)
1 signers of donor-cards

'signing of donor-card' involves permission to use ones 
organs for the purpose of transplantation when dead


Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaG=-.03 ns
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaG=-.04 ns
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aatc=-.02 ns


Appendices

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used

CodeFull Text
A-AB-cm-mq-v-6-aSelfreport on 5 questions:

During the past month, how much of the time did you feel:
A very nervous
B so down in the dumps that nothing could cheer you up
C calm and peacefull
D downhearted and blue
E happy

Response options:
6 all of the time
5 most of the time
4 a good bit of the time
3 some of the time
2 a little of the time
1 none of the time

Summation: (A+B+D)-(C+E)
A-BW-?-mq-v-5-aSelfreport on 20 questions:

Lead item not reported.

A nervous
B distressed
C afraid
D jittery
E irritable
F upset
G scared
H exited
I ashamed
J guilty
K hostile
L active
M determined
N inspired
O enthusiastic
P alert
Q attentive
R proud
S strong
T interested

Rated:
1: not at all
.
.
5 a lot

Negative affect score (NAS): A to K
Positive affect score (PAS): L to T
Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS - NAS

Name: Watson's PANAS version not reported
M-AO-g-mq-v-5-aSelfreport on 6 questions:

A On the whole, how happy would you say you are?
B On the whole, I think I am a quite happy person.
C In general, how would you say you feel most of the time -in
good or in low spirits?
D I get a lot of fun out of life.
E I wish I could be as happy as others seem to be.
F How often do you feel downcast and rejected?

Response options: not reported

The items of this scale were randomly distributed in the questionnaire.

Name: Rosen 'Depressive Affect Scale'
M-AO-u-mq-v-5-aSelfreport on 2 questions:

A "Taking all aspects of yourself and your life into account, which of the following best describes your own feelings of satisfaction with life....?"
5 I am extremely satisfied with my life
4 I am satisfied with my life
3 I am somewhat satisfied with my life
2 I am slightly satisfied with my life
1 I am not at all satisfied with my life

B "In general terms, about what proportion of the time do you feel satisfied.....?"

5 all of the time
4 most of the time
3 some of the time
2 rarely
1 never

Summation: not reported
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-aaSelfreport on single question:

Taken all together, how would you say things are these days? Would you say that you are....?
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy
O-SLu-g-sq-n-10-aSelfreport on single question:

How satisfied are you with your life in general?
1 very dissatisfied
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 very satisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-aSelfreport on single question:

We have talked about various parts of your life, now I want to ask you about your life as a whole. How satisfied are you with your life as a whole these days.....?
7 completely satisfied
6
5
4 neutral
3
2
1 completely dissatisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-v-3-cSelfreport on single question:

"In general: how satisfying do you find the way of life these days......?"
3 completely satisfying
2 pretty satisfying
1 not satisfying


Appendix 2: Statistics used

SymbolExplanation
ChiČCHI-SQUARE
Type: test statistic
Range: [0; Ne*(min(c,r)-1)], where c and r are the number of columns and rows respectively in a cross tabulation of Ne sample elements.

Meaning:
ChiČ <= (c-1) * (r-1) means: no or minor association
ChiČ >> (c-1) * (r-1) means: strong association
D%DIFFERENCE in PERCENTAGES
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate level: dichotomous, but nominal or ordinal theoretically possible as well. Happiness level: dichotomous
Range: [-100; +100]

Meaning: the difference of the percentages happy people at two correlate levels.
DMDIFFERENCE of MEANS
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Range: depending on the happiness rating scale of the author; range symmetric about zero.

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness, as measured on the author's rating scale, between the two correlate levels.
DMtDIFFERENCE of MEANS AFTER TRANSFORMATION
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: [-10; +10]

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness (happiness measured at a 0-10 rating scale) between the two correlate levels.
GGOODMAN & Kruskal's GAMMA
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: ordinal, Happinessl: ordinal
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
G = 0 « no rank correlation
G = +1 « strongest possible rank correlation, where high correlate values correspond to high happiness ratings.
G = -1 « strongest possible rank correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness ratings.
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 « no correlation ,
r = 1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
tcKENDALL'S TAU-C (Also referred to as Stuart's tau-c)
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: ordinal, Happiness: ordinal
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
tc = 0 « no rank correlation
tc = 1 « perfect rank correlation, where high values of the correlate correspond
with high happiness ratings.
tc = -1 « perfect rank correlation, where high values of the correlate correspond
with low happiness ratings.


Appendix 3: About the World Database of Happiness

Structure of the collections

The World Database of Happiness is an archive of research findings on subjective enjoyment of life .
It brings together findings that are scattered throughout many studies and provides a basis for synthetic work.

World literature on subjective wellbeing


Selection on fit with definition of happiness

Bibliography    and     Directory    

Selection of empirical studies and within these on valid measurement: Happiness measures
Abstracting and classification of findings

How happy people are, distributional findings What goes together with happiness

Happiness in nations
Happiness in regions
Happiness in publics
Correlational findings

  Listing of comparable findings in nations  
States of nations   ,   Trends in nations


Size of the collections
12061 publications in Bibliography of happiness, of which 6298 report an empirical study that is eligible for inclusion in the findings archive.
1152 measures of happiness, mostly single survey questions varying in wording and response scale.
12311 distributional findings in the general public, of which 8552 in 173 nations (former nations and de facto nations included) and 3759 findings in 2455 regions and cities in nations.
2124 studies with findings in 160 specific publics.
15579 correlational findings observed in 2062 studies, excerpted from 1588 publications.

Appendix 4 Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness

Main Subjects Subject Description Number of Studies
A01ACTIVITY (how much one does)56
A02ACTIVITY: PATTERN (what one does)120
A03AFFECTIVE LIFE82
A04AGE686
A05AGGRESSION14
A06ANOMY33
A07APPEARANCE (good looks)24
A08ATTITUDES12
A09AUTHORITARIANISM4
B01BIRTH CONTROL0
B02BIRTH HISTORY (own birth)205
B03BODY105
C01CHILDREN12
C02CHILDREN: WANT FOR (Parental aspirations)13
C03CHILDREN: HAVING (parental status)318
C04CHILDREN: CHARACTERISTICS OF ONE'S CHILDREN37
C05CHILDREN: RELATION WITH ONE'S CHILDREN19
C06CHILDREN: REARING OF ONE'S CHILDREN (parental behavior)35
C07COMMUNAL LIVING16
C08CONCERNS46
C09CONSUMPTION119
C10COPING64
C11CREATIVENESS7
C12CRIME2
C13CULTURE (Arts and Sciences)49
D01DAILY JOYS & HASSLES7
D02DISASTER1
E01EDUCATION533
E02EMPLOYMENT 815
E03ETHNICITY173
E04EXPRESSIVE BEHAVIOR12
F01FAMILY OF ORIGIN (earlier family for adults, current for young)331
F02FAMILY OF PROCREATION106
F03FAMILY OF RELATIVES192
F04FARMING66
F05FREEDOM56
F06FRIENDSHIP240
G01GENDER640
G02GRIEF1
H01HABITS2
H02HANDICAP49
H03HAPPINESS: VIEWS ON HAPPINESS121
H04HAPPINESS: DISPERSION OF HAPPINESS19
H05HAPPINESS: CAREER227
H06HAPINNESS: EFFECT OF CONDITIONS FOR HAPPINESS1
H07HAPPINESS: CORRESPONDENCE OF DIFFERENT MEASURES346
H08HAPPINESS OF OTHERS6
H09HAPPINESS: REPUTATION OF HAPPINESS26
H10HEALTH-BEHAVIOR50
H11HELPING16
H12HOPE36
H13HOUSEHOLD: COMPOSITION255
H14HOUSEHOLD: WORK49
H15HOUSING270
I01INCOME1077
I02INSTITUTIONAL LIVING44
I03INTELLIGENCE86
I04INTERESTS17
I05INTERVIEW 87
I06INTIMACY147
L01LANGUAGE18
L02LEADERSHIP14
L03LEISURE330
L04LIFE APPRAISALS: OTHER THAN HAPPINESS463
L05LIFE CHANGE71
L06LIFE EVENTS140
L07LIFE GOALS119
L08LIFE HISTORY11
L09LIFE STYLE 40
L10LOCAL ENVIRONMENT710
L11LOTTERY13
L12LOVE-LIFE44
M01MARRIAGE: MARITAL STATUS CAREER109
M02MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS887
M03MARRIAGE: RELATIONSHIP155
M04MARRIAGE: PARTNER82
M05MEANING31
M06MEDICAL TREATMENT107
M07MENTAL HEALTH308
M08MIGRATION: TO OTHER COUNTRY98
M09MIGRATION: MOVING WITHIN COUNTRY (residential mobility)49
M10MIGRATION: MIGRANT WORK5
M11MILITARY LIFE14
M12MODERNITY5
M13MOOD340
M14MOTIVATION21
M15MOBILITY21
N01NATION: NATIONALITY70
N02NATION: ERA (temporal period)124
N03NATION: NATIONAL CHARACTER (modal personality)75
N04NATION: CONDITION IN ONE'S NATION1054
N05NATION: POSITION OF ONE'S NATION16
N06NATION: ATTITUDES TO ONES NATION209
N07NATION: LIVABILITY OF ONE'S NATION63
N08NATION: ATTITUDINAL CLIMATE17
N09NATION: REGION137
N10NUTRITION54
N11NATION: AREA2
O01OCCUPATION224
O02ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION17
P01PERSONALITY: HISTORY56
P02PERSONALITY: CHANGE11
P03PERSONALITY: CURRENT ORGANIZATION10
P04PERSONALITY: CURRENT TRAITS722
P05PERSONALITY: LATER21
P06PHYSICAL HEALTH 829
P07PLANNING11
P08POLITICAL BEHAVIOUR285
P09POPULARITY30
P10POSSESSIONS156
P11PRISON3
P12PROBLEMS30
P13PSYCHO-SOMATIC COMPLAINTS63
P14PETS4
R01RELIGION427
R02RESOURCES33
R03RETIREMENT154
R04ROLES31
S01SCHOOL208
S02SELF-IMAGE313
S03SEX-LIFE77
S04SLEEP17
S05SOCIAL MOBILITY25
S06SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: PERSONAL CONTACTS99
S07SOCIAL PARTICIPATION : VOLUNTARY ASSOCIATIONS152
S08SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: TOTAL (personal + associations)54
S09SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS191
S10SOCIAL SUPPORT: RECEIVED117
S11SOCIAL SUPPORT: PROVIDED24
S12SPORTS69
S13STIMULANTS93
S14SUICIDE10
S15SUMMED DETERMINANTS168
T01TIME 106
T02THERAPY58
T03TOLERANCE39
T05TRUST47
V01VALUES: CAREER6
V02VALUES: CURRENT PREFERENCES (own)164
V03VALUES: CLIMATE (current values in environment)13
V04VALUES: SIMILARITY (current fit with others)13
V05VALUES: LIVING UP TO18
V06VICTIM 32
W01WAR7
W02WISDOM1
W03WORK: CAREER1
W04WORK: CONDITIONS127
W05WORK: ATTITUDES412
W06WORK: PERFORMANCE (current)40
W07WORRIES57
X01UNCLASSIFIED34


Appendix 5: Related Subjects

SubjectRelated Subject(s)
O02ORGAN TRANSPLANTATIONL05LIFE CHANGE
O02ORGAN TRANSPLANTATIONL06LIFE EVENTS
O02ORGAN TRANSPLANTATIONM06acKind of current treatment
O02abOrgan receptionP06ad14aRenal failure (n17-19)

A report of the World Database of Happiness, Correlational Findings