Findings on Happiness and NUTRITION

World Database of Happiness

Correlational Findings on Happiness and NUTRITION
Subject Code: N10

© on data collection: Ruut Veenhoven, Erasmus University Rotterdam

Classification of Findings
Subject Code Description Nr of Studies
on this Subject
N10aaNutrition history10
N10abCurrent nutrition7
N10ab01How much one eats1
N10ab02What one eats24
N10ab03Where one eats2
N10acAttitudes to one's nutrition0
N10ac01Concern about nutrition2
N10ac02Satisfaction with one's nutrition3
N10NUTRITION0
N10ab04How much one spends on eating2
N10aa01Earlier nutrition0
N10aa02Change in nutrition2
N10aa03Later nutrition0
N10ab05When one eats1
 
Appendices
Appendix 1Happiness measures used 
Appendix 2Statistics used 
Appendix 3About the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 4Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 5Related Subjects 

Cite as:    Veenhoven, R.: Findings on Happiness and NUTRITION
World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings
Internet: http://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/top_sub.php?code=N10
Erasmus University Rotterdam, 2018, Netherlands

Correlational finding on Happiness and Nutrition history
Subject code: N10aa

StudyVentegodt (1997): study DK 1993
TitleLivskvalitet og Omstaedigheder Tidligt I Livet. (The Quality of Life and Factors in Pregnancy, Birth and Infancy).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1997, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, born at the university hospital, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response36%
Respondents N =4626

Correlate
Author's labelIron treatment in second half year of life
Page in Source 506
Our classificationNutrition history, code N10aa
Operationalization
Iron treatment in second half year of life as reported 
in medical file
1: second half year, under 1 month
2: second half year, 1-2 months
3: second half year, over 2 months
Observed distributionN: 1:7,1%, 2:12,2%, 3:23,6%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDMt=±
1: Mt=7.60
2: Mt=7.99
3: Mt=7.64
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-ars=-.36 ns
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMt=±
1: Mt=7.06
2: Mt=7.70
3: Mt=7.40
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-ers=+.02 ns
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haDMt=±
1: Mt=6.79
2: Mt=7.34
3: Mt=6.96
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-hars=-.01 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Nutrition history
Subject code: N10aa

StudyVentegodt (1997): study DK 1993
TitleLivskvalitet og Omstaedigheder Tidligt I Livet. (The Quality of Life and Factors in Pregnancy, Birth and Infancy).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1997, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, born at the university hospital, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response36%
Respondents N =4626

Correlate
Author's labelDiet shortly after birth
Page in Source 434
Our classificationNutrition history, code N10aa
Operationalization
Diet at day 5 as reported in medical file
a:breast fed
b:breast fed with water supplement
c:breast fed with milk supplement
d:wet nurse milk
e:wet nurse milk with supplement
f:formula
g:other nourishment
h:tube feeding
Observed distributionN all:4534, %:a:67,2, b:2,7, c:16,9, d:1,9, e:1,9, f:5,5, g:0,7, h:3,1

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDMt=±
a:Mt=7.73
b:Mt=7.65
c:Mt=7.75
d:Mt=7.89
e:Mt=7.50
f:Mt=7.68
g:Mt=7.65
h:Mt=7.73
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMt=±
a:Mt=7.44
b:Mt=7.15
c:Mt=7.39
d:Mt=7.44
e:Mt=7.19
f:Mt=7.16
g:Mt=7.89
h:Mt=7.46
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haDMt=±
a:Mt=7.03
b:Mt=7.09
c:Mt=7.08
d:Mt=7.11
e:Mt=6.86
f:Mt=6.90
g:Mt=7.05
h:Mt=7.06


Correlational finding on Happiness and Nutrition history
Subject code: N10aa

StudyVentegodt (1997): study DK 1993
TitleLivskvalitet og Omstaedigheder Tidligt I Livet. (The Quality of Life and Factors in Pregnancy, Birth and Infancy).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1997, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, born at the university hospital, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response36%
Respondents N =4626

Correlate
Author's labelVitamin supplements shortly after birth
Page in Source 436
Our classificationNutrition history, code N10aa
Operationalization
Vitamin supplements, day 5, as reported in medical file 

1:no vitamins
2: vitamin supplements
   2a:E vitamin
   2b:K vitamin
   2c:K vitamin 1 mg
   2d:Etra menadion
Observed distributionN all:4291, 1:82,1%, 2a:1,5%, 2b:13,2%, 2c:3,1%, 2d:0,2%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDMt=+
1: Mt=7.71
2: Mt=7.77
   2a:Mt=7.78
   2b:Mt=7.78
   2c:Mt=7.75
   2d:Mt=7.86
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMt=+
1: Mt=7.39
2: Mt=7.49
   2a:Mt=7.78
   2b:Mt=7.43
   2c:Mt=7.61
   2d:Mt=7.50
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haDMt=+
1: Mt=7.01
2: Mt=7.07
   2a:Mt=7.28
   2b:Mt=7.05
   2c:Mt=7.14
   2d:Mt=5.71


Correlational finding on Happiness and Nutrition history
Subject code: N10aa

StudyVentegodt (1997): study DK 1993
TitleLivskvalitet og Omstaedigheder Tidligt I Livet. (The Quality of Life and Factors in Pregnancy, Birth and Infancy).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1997, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, born at the university hospital, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response36%
Respondents N =4626

Correlate
Author's labelVitamin supplements in first year of life
Page in Source 492
Our classificationNutrition history, code N10aa
Operationalization
Vitamin supplements in  first year of life as reported 
in medical file
1a: no vitamins
1b: no AD vitamins at all or for less than a month
1c: no C vitamins at all or for less than a month
2:irregularly doses of vitamins
2a: AD vitamins irregularly or with a pause of more 
than 3 months
2b: vitamins irregularly or with a pause of more than 3 
months
3: regularly doses of vitamins
3a: AD vitamins, regularly
3b: C vitamins, regularly
3c: D vitamins, supplement
3d: AD vitamins in increased doses
3e: extra calcium
Observed distributionN: 1a:9, 1b:21, 1c:71, 2a:388, 2b:563, 3a:3132, 3b:2878, 3c:19, 3d:452, 3e:20
Remarks
only absolute frequencies are given.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDMt=±
1a: Mt=8.34
1b: Mt=7.50
1c: Mt=7.85
2a: Mt=7.89
2b: Mt=7.84
3a: Mt=7.73
3b: Mt=7.73
3c: Mt=8.29
3d: Mt=7.79
3e: Mt=7.50
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-ars=-.02 ns
rs =relation of 1,2,3
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMt=±
1a: Mt=8.05
1b: Mt=6.90
1c: Mt=7.50
2a: Mt=7.60
2b: Mt=7.55
3a: Mt=7.38
3b: Mt=7.38
3c: Mt=7.90
3d: Mt=7.45
3e: Mt=7.64
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-ers=-.02 ns
rs =relation of 1,2,3
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haDMt=±
1a: Mt=7.78
1b: Mt=7.03
1c: Mt=7.01
2a: Mt=7.34
2b: Mt=7.29
3a: Mt=6.99
3b: Mt=6.98
3c: Mt=6.84
3d: Mt=7.09
3e: Mt=7.38
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-hars=-.05 ns
rs =relation of 1,2,3


Correlational finding on Happiness and Nutrition history
Subject code: N10aa

StudyVentegodt (1997): study DK 1993
TitleLivskvalitet og Omstaedigheder Tidligt I Livet. (The Quality of Life and Factors in Pregnancy, Birth and Infancy).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1997, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, born at the university hospital, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response36%
Respondents N =4626

Correlate
Author's labelAge when first eggs are eaten
Page in Source 496
Our classificationNutrition history, code N10aa
Operationalization
Age when first eggs are eaten as reported in medical 
file
1: 2th month
2: 3rd month
3: 4th month
4: 5th month
5: 6th month
6: 7th month
7: 8th - 9th month
8: 10 month
Observed distributionN all:2866, 1:0,3%, 2:0,8%, 3:5,0%, 4:12,0%, 5:20,8%, 6:37,8%, 7:17,9%, 8:5,3%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDMt=±
1: Mt=8.75
2: Mt=8.64
3: Mt=7.40
4: Mt=7.70
5: Mt=7.71
6: Mt=7.84
7: Mt=7.69
8: Mt=7.75
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-ar=+.01 p < .6849
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMt=±
1: Mt=8.44
2: Mt=8.30
3: Mt=7.41
4: Mt=7.39
5: Mt=7.29
6: Mt=7.51
7: Mt=7.36
8: Mt=7.38
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-er=-.01 p < .6749
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haDMt=±
1: Mt=8.44
2: Mt=7.14
3: Mt=7.10
4: Mt=7.13
5: Mt=6.98
6: Mt=7.08
7: Mt=6.91
8: Mt=7.14
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-har=-.02 p < .2930


Correlational finding on Happiness and Nutrition history
Subject code: N10aa

StudyVentegodt (1997): study DK 1993
TitleLivskvalitet og Omstaedigheder Tidligt I Livet. (The Quality of Life and Factors in Pregnancy, Birth and Infancy).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1997, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, born at the university hospital, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response36%
Respondents N =4626

Correlate
Author's labelAge when first meat eaten
Page in Source 498
Our classificationNutrition history, code N10aa
Operationalization
Age when first meat eaten as reported in medical file
1: before 4th month
2: 4th month
3: 5th month
4: 6th month
5: 7th month
6: 8th month - 9th month 
7: 10th month
8: 11th - 12th month
Observed distributionN all:3166, 1:0,4%, 2:2,5%, 3:6,7%, 4:10,6%, 5:31,1%, 6:28,7%, 7:16,6%, 8:3,3%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDMt=±
1: Mt=7.89
2: Mt=7.41
3: Mt=7.74
4: Mt=7.76
5: Mt=7.69
6: Mt=7.81
7: Mt=7.84
8: Mt=7.31
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-ar=+.01 p < .5595
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMt=±
1: Mt=7.31
2: Mt=7.29
3: Mt=7.50
4: Mt=7.30
5: Mt=7.40
6: Mt=7.44
7: Mt=7.45
8: Mt=7.26
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-er=+.01 p < .7242
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haDMt=±
1: Mt=6.73
2: Mt=6.88
3: Mt=7.10
4: Mt=7.01
5: Mt=7.01
6: Mt=7.04
7: Mt=7.08
8: Mt=6.90
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-har=+.01 p < .7569


Correlational finding on Happiness and Nutrition history
Subject code: N10aa

StudyVentegodt (1997): study DK 1993
TitleLivskvalitet og Omstaedigheder Tidligt I Livet. (The Quality of Life and Factors in Pregnancy, Birth and Infancy).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1997, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, born at the university hospital, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response36%
Respondents N =4626

Correlate
Author's labelAge when first solid food eaten
Page in Source 500
Our classificationNutrition history, code N10aa
Operationalization
Age when first solid food eaten as reported in medical 
file
1: 4th month
2: 5th month
3: 6th month
4: 7th month
5: 8th-9th month
6: 10 month
7: 11th-12th month
Observed distributionN all:2966, 1:0,6%, 2:1,8%, 3:4,9%, 4:16,6%, 5:32,9%, 6:36,9%, 7:6,4%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDMt=±
1: Mt=6.61
2: Mt=7.50
3: Mt=7.69
4: Mt=7.78
5: Mt=7.79
6: Mt=7.70
7: Mt=7.85
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-ar=+.02 p < .4073
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMt=±
1: Mt=6.48
2: Mt=7.04
3: Mt=7.23
4: Mt=7.50
5: Mt=7.46
6: Mt=7.34
7: Mt=7.49
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-er=+.01 p < .5045
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haDMt=±
1: Mt=5.89
2: Mt=6.80
3: Mt=7.00
4: Mt=7.11
5: Mt=7.03
6: Mt=6.95
7: Mt=7.09
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-har=+.01 p < .7731


Correlational finding on Happiness and Nutrition history
Subject code: N10aa

StudyVentegodt (1997): study DK 1993
TitleLivskvalitet og Omstaedigheder Tidligt I Livet. (The Quality of Life and Factors in Pregnancy, Birth and Infancy).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1997, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, born at the university hospital, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response36%
Respondents N =4626

Correlate
Author's labelAge when first mashed vegetables eaten
Page in Source 494
Our classificationNutrition history, code N10aa
Operationalization
Age when first  mashed vegetables eaten as reported in 
medical file
1: before 3rd month
2: 3rd month
3: 4th month
4: 5th month
5: 6th month
6: 7th month
7: 8th - 9th month
8: 10th month or later
Observed distributionN all:3445, 1:1,0%, 2:8,0%, 3:37,3%, 4:24,0%, 5:13,4%, 6:11,5%, 7:3,2%, 8:1,6%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDMt=±
1: Mt=7.28
2: Mt=7.83
3: Mt=7.76
4: Mt=7.61
5: Mt=7.74
6: Mt=7.81
7: Mt=7.86
8: Mt=7.85
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-ar=+.01 p < .6152
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMt=±
1: Mt=7.20
2: Mt=7.41
3: Mt=7.43
4: Mt=7.31
5: Mt=7.46
6: Mt=7.41
7: Mt=7.71
8: Mt=7.59
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-er=+.01 p < .5735
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haDMt=±
1: Mt=6.69
2: Mt=7.09
3: Mt=7.01
4: Mt=6.93
5: Mt=7.00
6: Mt=7.15
7: Mt=7.23
8: Mt=7.10
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-har=+.02 p < .2537


Correlational finding on Happiness and Nutrition history
Subject code: N10aa

StudyVentegodt (1997): study DK 1993
TitleLivskvalitet og Omstaedigheder Tidligt I Livet. (The Quality of Life and Factors in Pregnancy, Birth and Infancy).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1997, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, born at the university hospital, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response36%
Respondents N =4626

Correlate
Author's labelIron treatment in first half year of life
Page in Source 506
Our classificationNutrition history, code N10aa
Operationalization
Iron treatment in  first half year of life as reported 
in medical file
1: first year, less than 1 month
2: first year, 1 - 2 months.
3: first half year, over 2 months
iron treatment in the child's second half year
Observed distributionN all:1124, 1:9,4%, 2:18,1%, 3:29,5%,

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDMt=±
1: Mt=7.64
2: Mt=7.93
3: Mt=7.61
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-ars=-.36 ns
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMt=
1: Mt=7.39
2: Mt=7.60
3: Mt=7.36
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-ers=+.02 ns
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haDMt=
1: Mt=7.08
2: Mt=7.11
3: Mt=6.91
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-hars=-.01 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Nutrition history
Subject code: N10aa

StudyVentegodt (1997): study DK 1993
TitleLivskvalitet og Omstaedigheder Tidligt I Livet. (The Quality of Life and Factors in Pregnancy, Birth and Infancy).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1997, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, born at the university hospital, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response36%
Respondents N =4626

Correlate
Author's labelAge when breastfeeding was stopped
Page in Source 540,542
Our classificationNutrition history, code N10aa
Operationalization
Age when breastfeeding was stopped as reported in 
medical file
1: 1-2 week
2: 3-4 week
3: 2 month
4: 3 month
5: 4 month
6: 5 month
7: 6-7 month
8: 8 month or later
(a)breastfeeding partially discontinued
(b)breastfeeding completely discontinued
Observed distributionN a all:3769, a1:29,1%, a2:10,4%, a3:17,5%, a4:14,6%, a5:13,3%, a6:6,0%, a7:7,1%, a8:2,0% N b all:3657, b1:22,3%, b2:9,0%, b3:17,5%, b4:15,3%, b5:13,6%, b6:6,2%, b7:8,2%, b8:7,8%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDMt=±
a:partially     b:completely
1: Mt=7.74      1:7.76
2: Mt=7.46      2:7.66
3: Mt=7.76      3:7.59
4: Mt=7.76      4:7.81
5: Mt=7.81      5:7.84
6: Mt=7.70      6:7.70
7: Mt=7.86      7:7.71
8: Mt=7.70      8:7.73
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-ar=+.02 p < .2442
partially
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-ar=+.00 p < .8161
completely
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMt=±
a:partially     b:completely
1: Mt=7.40      1:7.41
2: Mt=7.18      2:7.38
3: Mt=7.30      3:7.18
4: Mt=7.49      4:7.45
5: Mt=7.48      5:7.50
6: Mt=7.51      6:7.48
7: Mt=7.54      7:7.43
8: Mt=7.56      8:7.43
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-er=+.03 p < .0721
partially
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-har=+.01 p < .6575
completely
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-er=+.01 p < .3810
completely
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haDMt=±
a:partially     b:completely
1: Mt=7.06      1:7.04
2: Mt=7.01      2:7.08
3: Mt=6.91      3:6.88
4: Mt=7.03      4:7.06
5: Mt=7.00      5:7.06
6: Mt=7.09      6:6.93
7: Mt=7.11      7:7.05
8: Mt=7.10      8:7.10
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-har=+.00 p < .8358
partially


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in nutrition
Subject code: N10aa02

StudyMujcica (2016): study AU 2007
TitleEvolution of Well-Being and Happiness After Increases in Consumption of Fruit and Vegetables.
SourceAJPH, 2016, Vol 106, 1504 - 1510
URLhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27400354
DOIdoi: 10.2105/AJPH.2016.303260.
Public18+ aged general public, Australia, followed 3 years 2007-2009
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =12385

Correlate
Author's labelChange consumption fruits and vegetables
Page in Source table 1 + 2
Our classificationChange in nutrition, code N10aa02
Operationalization
Selfreported consumption of fruit and vegetables in 
portions per day in a typical week
1
2
3
4
5
6 or more
Observed distributionM: 3,84; SD: 2,01
Remarks
Change over 3 years: T1: 2007, T2: 2008, T3: 2009

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-db-fix=+.03 p < .002
CHANGE happiness by CHANGE portions fruits and 
vegetables
CI95 [+0.01, +0.04] no controls

Meaning: Change from 1 to 6 servings an day would 
correspond with a gain of 0,24 on this 0-10 
happiness scale
Set Image size:   

O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-db-fix=+.03 p < .003
Controled for set A
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-db-fix=+.02 p < .10
Additionally controled for set B
M-TH-cm-sq-v-6-ab-fix=+.02 p < .003
CI95 [+.001, - +003) no controls
M-TH-cm-sq-v-6-ab-fix=+.02 p < .02
Controled for set A
M-TH-cm-sq-v-6-ab-fix=+.02 p < .017
Additionally controled for set B

Control variables SET A
- socio-demographic characteristics
  - age
  - income
  - education
  - employmeent
- long-term health condition
- number of children under age 4

Control variables SET B
- drinking alcohol
- smoking
- eating behaviors
  - never eat red meat
  - never eat fish
  - drink low fat or skinny milk
  - avoid fat foods
- BMI
- regular exercise

Granger test suggests that causality runs from 
nutrition to happiness and not reversedly


Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in nutrition
Subject code: N10aa02

StudyCaligiuri et al. (2012): study CA 2000
TitleChanges in food group consumption and associations with self-rated diet, health, life satisfaction, and menatl and physical functioning over 5 years in very old Canadian men: The Manitoba follow up study
SourceThe Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging, 16 (8) 707-712
URLhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/labs/articles/23076513/#affiliation-1
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s12603-012-0055-7
Public790 + aged men, Canada, followed 5 years, 200-2005
SampleSampling not reported
Non-Response
Respondents N =2061

Correlate
Author's labelChange in food consupmtion
Page in Source 710
Our classificationChange in nutrition, code N10aa02
Operationalization
The frequency of consumption has been examined, in 
following food groups:
a. Fruits and vegetables;
b. Grain products;
c. Meat and alternatives;
d. Milk products and alternatives;

Participants were clasified in five categories: not at 
all, rarely, most days, every day, and every meal.
Observed distribution% improved a: 46%, b: 49%, c: 46%, d: 59%
Remarks
Assessed on: T1 2000 and T2 2005

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-tOR=1.20 ns
CHANGE in happiness by IMPROVEMENT in consumption 
of vegetables and fruits 
CI95 [0.86 - 1.67]
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-tOR=1.22 ns
CHANGE in happiness by IMPROVEMENT in consumption 
of grain products
CI95 [0.87 - 1.70]
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-tOR=1.34 ns
CHANGE in happiness by IMPROVEMENT in consumption 
of milk products and alternatives
CI95 [0.98 - 1.85]
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-tOR=1.38 ns
CHANGE in happiness by IMPROVEMENT in consumption 
of meat products and alternatives
CI95 [0.98 - 1.96]


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current nutrition
Subject code: N10ab

StudyVentegodt (1996): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet hos 4500 31-33-arige. (The Quality of Life of 4500 31-33-Years-Olds).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1996, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, Denmark 1993, born in University Hospital in Copenhagen
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =4611

Correlate
Author's labeldiet and health
Page in Source 454
Our classificationCurrent nutrition, code N10ab
Operationalization
diet
1: very bad
2: bad
3: neither good nor bad
4: good
5: very good
Observed distributionN: All:4547; %:1:17,7; 2:47,9; 3:24,8; 4:8,2; 5:1,4
Remarks
the correlations and M's do give only the relation 
between diet and health
based on the question:
"How are your eating habits ?"
1 I eat what I like
2 I think I eat healthy
3 I think I eat unhealthy
4 I eat few calories because of my weight
5 I eat ready-prepared dishes/fast food at least once a 
week
6 I eat vegetarian food
7 Information campaigns influence my eating habits

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-ar=+.05 p < .00
1: Ms=7.38
2: Ms=7.73
3: Ms=7.79
4: Ms=7.65
5: Ms=7.98
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-er=+.03 p < .02
1: Ms=7.38
2: Ms=7.69
3: Ms=7.70
4: Ms=7.64
5: Ms=7.84
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-har=+.03 ns
1: Ms=7.46
2: Ms=7.80
3: Ms=7.75
4: Ms=7.55
5: Ms=8.44


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current nutrition
Subject code: N10ab

StudyVentegodt (1996): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet hos 4500 31-33-arige. (The Quality of Life of 4500 31-33-Years-Olds).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1996, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public31-33 aged, Denmark 1993, born in University Hospital in Copenhagen
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =4611

Correlate
Author's labeldiet
Page in Source 186
Our classificationCurrent nutrition, code N10ab
Operationalization
Single question:
"How is your diet ?"
a: I eat what I like
b: I think my diet is healthy
c: I don't think my diet is healthy
d: I eat so as to keep my weight down
e: I eat ready-prepared dishes or fast food 
   at least once a week
f: I eat vegatarian
g: Information campaigns influence my 
   dietary habits
Observed distributionN: All; %:a:66,6; b:53,7; c:17,4; d:8,4; e:17,6; f:4,3; g:12,8
Remarks
catagories are not mutually exclusive

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-a
a: Mt=7.79
b: Mt=7.96
c: Mt=7.09
d: Mt=7.81
e: Mt=7.58
f: Mt=7.61
g: Mt=7.64
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-e
a: Mt=7.44
b: Mt=7.65
c: Mt=6.76
d: Mt=7.51
e: Mt=7.24
f: Mt=7.21
g: Mt=7.26
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-ha
a: Mt=7.01
b: Mt=7.26
c: Mt=6.50
d: Mt=7.06
e: Mt=6.70
f: Mt=6.73
g: Mt=6.90


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current nutrition
Subject code: N10ab

StudyVentegodt (1995): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet I Danmark. (Quality of Life in Denmark. Results from a Population Survey).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1995, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public18-88 aged, general public, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =1494

Correlate
Author's labeldiet
Page in Source 178
Our classificationCurrent nutrition, code N10ab
Operationalization
Single question:
"How is your diet ?"
a: I eat what I like
b: I think my diet is healthy
c: I don't think my diet is healthy
d: I eat so as to keep my weight down
e: I eat ready-prepared dishes or fast food 
   at least once a week
f: I eat vegatarian
g: Information campaigns influence my 
   dietary habits
Observed distributionN: a:833, b:831, c:160, d:180, e:188, f:32, g:153
Remarks
The same respondents may appear in several groups

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDMt=
 a: Mt=7.89
 b: Mt=7.88
 c: Mt=7.14
 d: Mt=7.65
 e: Mt=7.63
 f: Mt=8.05
 g: Mt=7.73
All Mt=7.89
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMt=
 a: Mt=7.50
 b: Mt=7.64
 c: Mt=6.55
 d: Mt=7.46
 e: Mt=7.25
 f: Mt=7.83
 g: Mt=7.54
All Mt=7.46
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haDMt=
 a: Mt=7.00
 b: Mt=7.08
 c: Mt=6.39
 d: Mt=7.10
 e: Mt=6.83
 f: Mt=7.19
 g: Mt=6.95
All Mt=6.98


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current nutrition
Subject code: N10ab

StudyLauzon-Guillain et al. (2012): study GB East England 2006
TitleBreastfeeding and Infant Temperament at Age Three Months
SourcePloS ONE, www.plosone.org, January 2012, Volume 7, Issue 1, e29326
DOIDOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0029326
Public3 months aged infants, Cambridge, United Kingdom, 2006-2009
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =316

Correlate
Author's labelMode of Infant Feeding
Page in Source 2, 3,4
Our classificationCurrent nutrition, code N10ab
Operationalization
Mother's report on single question to a research nurse 
administered questionnaire:
a: Formula-fed
b: Mixed-fed
c: Breastfed
Observed distributiona: N=88, 55% males; b: N=91, 54% males; c: N=137, 54% males
Remarks
Assessed at 3 months of age

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-CA-cw-rdf-v-7-aDM=- p < .05
a Formula-fed: M = 4,8 [CI95 4,6-5,0]
b Mixed-fed:   M = 4,4 [CI95 4,2-4,6] 
c Breastfed:   M = 4,4 [CI95 4,2-4,5]

b, c < a
A-CA-cw-rdf-v-7-abDM=- p < .05
a Formula-fed: M = 5,4 [CI95 5,2-5,6]
b Mixed-fed:   M = 5,0 [CI95 4,8-5,2] 
c Breastfed:   M = 5,1 [CI95 4,8-5,1]

b, c < a
A-CA-cw-rdf-v-7-baDM=- p < .05
a Formula-fed: M = 5,3 [CI95 5,1-5,5]
b Mixed-fed:   M = 5,1 [CI95 5,0-5,3] 
c Breastfed:   M = 5,0 [CI95 4,8-5,1]

c < a
A-AB-cw-rdf-v-7-a
a Formula-fed: 7.1
b Mixed-fed:   5.7
c Breastfed:   5.4

Affect Balance computed by WDH team


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current nutrition
Subject code: N10ab

StudyHeadey et al. (2008): study GB 2000
TitleMoney does not Buy Happiness...Or does it? A Reconsideration Based on the Combined Effects of Wealth, Income and Consumption.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2008, Vol. 87, 65 - 82
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-007-9146-y
Public15+ aged, general public, Great Britain, 2000
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =14101

Correlate
Author's labelEquivalised Consumption / 1000
Page in Source 10, 16
Our classificationCurrent nutrition, code N10ab
Operationalization
For consumption the food expenditure (food eaten at 
home and meals out) served as a proxy for total 
non-durables.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-ar=+.06
r only reported in original Discussion paper
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-ab=+.13 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-aBeta=+.01 ns
B and Beta controlled for
- gender
- age
- partnered
- education
- in working force
- unemployed
- bad health


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current nutrition
Subject code: N10ab

StudyLinn & McGranahan (1980): study US 1984
TitlePersonal Disruptions, Social Integration, Subjective Well-Being and Predisposition towards the Use of Counseling Services.
SourceAmerican Journal of Community Psychology, 1980, Vol. 8, 87 - 100
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00892284
PublicPhysicians, California, USA, 1984
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =211

Correlate
Author's labelEating regulary
Page in Source 834
Our classificationCurrent nutrition, code N10ab
Operationalization
Selfreported of typical behaviors in the past 6 month 
to make one feel better:
- Eating 3 meals a day
Rated: never(1) to daily (6)
Observed distributionM = 3.06

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=-.02 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current nutrition
Subject code: N10ab

StudyLinn & McGranahan (1980): study US 1984
TitlePersonal Disruptions, Social Integration, Subjective Well-Being and Predisposition towards the Use of Counseling Services.
SourceAmerican Journal of Community Psychology, 1980, Vol. 8, 87 - 100
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00892284
PublicPhysicians, California, USA, 1984
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =211

Correlate
Author's labelSnacking
Page in Source 834
Our classificationCurrent nutrition, code N10ab
Operationalization
Selfreported of typical behaviors in the past 6 month 
to make one feel better: 
- Eating frequent snacks during the day or in the 
evening
rated: never(1) to daily (6)
Observed distribution Mean Snacking 3.22

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-ar=-.12 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and How much one eats
Subject code: N10ab01

StudyPelham & Nyiri (2009): study ZZ 2006
TitleEating well and Life Satisfaction; a Global View.
SourceThe Gallup Company, 2009, Washington DC, USQA
URLhttp://www.gallup.com/poll/113827/eating-well-life-satisfaction-global-view.aspx
Public15+ aged, general public, 114 nations, 2006-2008
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =114000

Correlate
Author's labelHunger
Page in Source 2
Our classificationHow much one eats, code N10ab01
Operationalization
Self report on single question: "Have there been times 
in the past 12 months when you or your family have gone 
hungry?" 
0= no
1= yes
Observed distribution% yes: Africa: 56%, Americas: 16%, Asia: 9%, Europe: 3%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cDM=-
Africa
0 = no hunger, M = 4,7 
1 = hunger,    M = 3,9
      Difference =-0,8

The Americas
0 = no hunger, M = 6,1 
1 = hunger,    M = 4,6
      Difference =-1,5
Asia
0 = no hunger, M = 5,4
1 = hunger,    M = 4,1
      Difference =-1,3

Europe
0 = no hunger, M = 5,9 
1 = hunger,    M = 4,1
      Difference =-1,8
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and What one eats
Subject code: N10ab02

StudyMujcica (2016): study AU 2007
TitleEvolution of Well-Being and Happiness After Increases in Consumption of Fruit and Vegetables.
SourceAJPH, 2016, Vol 106, 1504 - 1510
URLhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27400354
DOIdoi: 10.2105/AJPH.2016.303260.
Public18+ aged general public, Australia, followed 3 years 2007-2009
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =12385

Correlate
Author's labelChange consumption fruits and vegetables
Page in Source table 1 + 2
Our classificationWhat one eats, code N10ab02
Operationalization
Selfreported consumption of fruit and vegetables in 
portions per day in a typical week
1
2
3
4
5
6 or more
Observed distributionM: 3,84; SD: 2,01
Remarks
Change over 3 years: T1: 2007, T2: 2008, T3: 2009

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-db-fix=+.03 p < .002
CHANGE happiness by CHANGE portions fruits and 
vegetables
CI95 [+0.01, +0.04] no controls

Meaning: Change from 1 to 6 servings an day would 
correspond with a gain of 0,24 on this 0-10 
happiness scale
Set Image size:   

O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-db-fix=+.03 p < .003
Controled for set A
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-db-fix=+.02 p < .10
Additionally controled for set B
M-TH-cm-sq-v-6-ab-fix=+.02 p < .003
CI95 [+.001, - +003) no controls
M-TH-cm-sq-v-6-ab-fix=+.02 p < .02
Controled for set A
M-TH-cm-sq-v-6-ab-fix=+.02 p < .017
Additionally controled for set B

Control variables SET A
- socio-demographic characteristics
  - age
  - income
  - education
  - employmeent
- long-term health condition
- number of children under age 4

Control variables SET B
- drinking alcohol
- smoking
- eating behaviors
  - never eat red meat
  - never eat fish
  - drink low fat or skinny milk
  - avoid fat foods
- BMI
- regular exercise

Granger test suggests that causality runs from 
nutrition to happiness and not reversedly


Correlational finding on Happiness and What one eats
Subject code: N10ab02

StudyMujcica (2016): study AU 2007
TitleEvolution of Well-Being and Happiness After Increases in Consumption of Fruit and Vegetables.
SourceAJPH, 2016, Vol 106, 1504 - 1510
URLhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27400354
DOIdoi: 10.2105/AJPH.2016.303260.
Public18+ aged general public, Australia, followed 3 years 2007-2009
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =12385

Correlate
Author's labelWhat one eats
Page in Source table 1
Our classificationWhat one eats, code N10ab02
Operationalization
a: Never eat red meat    
b: Never eat fish 
c: Drink low-fat or skim milk 
d: Avoid fatty foods)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-db-fix= ns
Never red meat     b-fix = +.20 CI95[–.16,+.55]
Never fish         b-fix =–+.09 CI05[–.20,+.02]
Low-fat, skim milk b-fix = –.04 CI95[–.12,+.04]
Avoid fatty foods  b-fix = –.05 CI95[–.12,+.01]

b-fix controled for:
- CHANGE daily consumption of fruits and 
vegetables
- CURRENT
  - socio-demographics
    - age
    - income
    - education
    - marital status
    - employment
  - number of young children in household
  - exercise regularly
  - long-term health condition
  - BMI


Correlational finding on Happiness and What one eats
Subject code: N10ab02

StudyFararouei et al. (2013): study IR 2008
TitleHappiness and Health Behaviour in Iranian adolescent Girls.
SourceJournal of Adolescence, 2013, Vol. 36, 1187-1192
Public11-19 aged highschool girls, Iran, 200?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =9867

Correlate
Author's labelFruit consumption
Page in Source 1190
Our classificationWhat one eats, code N10ab02
Operationalization
Participants were asked how many serving of fruit they 
have a day
4. More than 4 portions
3. 3-4 portions 
2. 1-2 portions
1. some days of week
0: none (reference)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-n-11-bb=+1.3 p < .0027
More than 4 portions a day (vs none)
O-HL-c-sq-n-11-bb=+1.3 p < .0013
3-4 portions a day         (vs none)
O-HL-c-sq-n-11-bb=+1.2 p < .0048
1-2 portions a day         (vs none)
O-HL-c-sq-n-11-bb=+.55 p < .02
some days of the week      (vs none)

b's controled for:
- age
- other physical chartacteristics
  - height
  - weight
  - ill at the moment
- family characteristics
  - father job and education
  - mothers job and education
  - number of sibblings
- school situation
  - grade average
- health behavior
  - physical activity
  - being exposed to smoking
- urban/rural residency


Correlational finding on Happiness and What one eats
Subject code: N10ab02

StudyFararouei et al. (2013): study IR 2008
TitleHappiness and Health Behaviour in Iranian adolescent Girls.
SourceJournal of Adolescence, 2013, Vol. 36, 1187-1192
Public11-19 aged highschool girls, Iran, 200?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =9867

Correlate
Author's labelVegetable consumption
Page in Source 1190
Our classificationWhat one eats, code N10ab02
Operationalization
Participants were asked how many serving of vegetables 
they have a day:
4. More than 4 portions
3. 3-4 portions
2. 1-2 portions
1. Some days of week
0: none (reference)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-n-11-bb=+1.1 p < .001
More than 4 portions a day (vs none)
O-HL-c-sq-n-11-bb=+1.3 p < .001
3-4 portions a day         (vs none)
O-HL-c-sq-n-11-bb=+.97 p < .001
1-2 portions a day         (vs none)
O-HL-c-sq-n-11-bb=+.86 p < .002
Some days of the week      (vs none)

b's controled for:
- age
- other physical chartacteristics
  - height
  - weight
  - ill at the moment
- family characteristics
  - father job and education
  - mothers job and education
  - number of sibblings
- school situation
  - grade average
- health behavior
  - physical activity
  - being exposed to smoking
- urban/rural residency


Correlational finding on Happiness and What one eats
Subject code: N10ab02

StudyKye & Park (2014): study KR 2009
TitleHealth-related determinants of Happiness in Korean Adults.
SourceInternational Journal of Public Health, 2014, Vol. 59, 731-738
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s00038-014-0588-0
Public30-69 aged, general population, South Korea 2015
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1530

Correlate
Author's labelHealthy diet
Page in Source tables 1, 2
Our classificationWhat one eats, code N10ab02
Operationalization
Selfreport on questions on consuming a diverse, 
well-balanced diet that included sufficient amount of 
fruit and vegetables. 
Full text not reported
1: yes
0: no
Observed distribution1: 63%, 0: 37%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-mD%=+ p < .001
Healthy diet     % happy %unhappy  %difference
- yes            66      34        +32
- no             49      51        -2
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-mOR=1.53 p < .05
OR CI95[1,19-1,97] controled for:
- socio-demographic factors
  - age
  - marital status
  - income
  - education
- stress
- health behavior
  - smoking
  - regular excercise
- exercise environment
  - parks
  - fitness clubs
  - mountain trails


Correlational finding on Happiness and What one eats
Subject code: N10ab02

StudyHonkala et al. (2006): study KW 2002
TitleConsumption of Sugar Products and Associated Life- and School- Satisfaction and Self-Esteem Factors among Schoolchildren in Kuwait.
SourceActa Odontologica Scandinavica, 2006, Vol. 64, 79 - 88
DOIDOI: 10.1080/00016350500420048
Public11-13 age, schoolchildren, Kuwait, 2002-2003
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response9.5%
Respondents N =2556

Correlate
Author's labelConsumption of sugar products
Page in Source Table 2
Our classificationWhat one eats, code N10ab02
Operationalization
More-than-once-a-day consumption (%) of sugar products
a. sweets
b. soft drinks
c. cakes
d. all three products

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-cD%=+/- p < .01
SWEETS

very happy: 42%
happy:      39%
not happy:  51%
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-cOR= ns
vs not happy
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-cD%=+/- ns
SOFT DRINKS

very happy: 43%
happy:      41%
not happy:  48%
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-cOR= ns
vs not happy
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-cD%=+/- p < .001
CAKES

very happy: 34%
happy:      23%
not happy:  36%
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-cOR=1.6 p < .05
vs not happy

CI95: [1.25-2.04]
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-cD%=+/- p < .001
ALL THREE PRODUCTS

very happy: 20%
happy:      14%
not happy:  25%
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-cOR=1.6 p < .05
vs not happy

CI95: [1.18-2.16]


Correlational finding on Happiness and What one eats
Subject code: N10ab02

StudyPelham & Nyiri (2009): study ZZ 2006
TitleEating well and Life Satisfaction; a Global View.
SourceThe Gallup Company, 2009, Washington DC, USQA
URLhttp://www.gallup.com/poll/113827/eating-well-life-satisfaction-global-view.aspx
Public15+ aged, general public, 114 nations, 2006-2008
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =114000

Correlate
Author's labelEating healthy
Page in Source 4
Our classificationWhat one eats, code N10ab02
Operationalization
Self report on single question: "Now, please think 
about yesterday, from the morning until the end of the 
day. Think about where you were, what you were doing, 
who you were with, and how you felt. Did you eat 
healthy all day yesterday?"
0= yes
1= no
Remarks
For the analysis of 'healthy eating' at least 18.000 
responses per region were used.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cDM=-
Africa
0 = healthy,     M = 4,6 
1 = not healthy, M = 3,8
        Difference =-0,8

The Americas
0 = healthy,     M = 6,0 
1 = not healthy, M = 5,4
        Difference =-0,6
Asia
0 = healthy,     M = 5,4
1 = not healthy, M = 5,0
        Difference =-0,4

Europe
0 = healthy,     M = 6,8 
1 = not healthy, M = 6,6
        Difference =-0,2
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and What one eats
Subject code: N10ab02

StudyBakker & VandeBerg (1974): study NL 1968
TitleDeterminanten en Correlaten van Geluk.(Determinants and Correlates of Happiness).
SourceUnpublished Thesis, Erasmus University Rotterdam, 1974, Netherlands
URLHTTP://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_bib/freetexts/bakker_p_1974.pdf
Public20-65 aged, general public, The Netherlands, 1968
Sample
Non-Response34% refusal and unattainable.
Respondents N =1552

Correlate
Author's labelEating habits
Page in Source 28
Our classificationWhat one eats, code N10ab02
Operationalization
Closed question on amount of consumption per day of:
1. Milk, yogurt, etc.
2. Meat, fish, eggs.
3. Sugar (number of spoons).
4. Fat (bacon and drippings).
5. Fresh fruits.
Remarks
                        
                                    

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-sq-ol-7-aG=+.14
O-HP-g-sq-ol-7-aG=+.21
O-HP-g-sq-ol-7-aG=+.05 ns
O-HP-g-sq-ol-7-aG=-.01 ns
O-HP-g-sq-ol-7-aG=+.04 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and What one eats
Subject code: N10ab02

StudyConner (2017): study NZ Auckland 2015
TitleLet them eat fruit! The effect of fruit and vegetable consumption on psychological well/being in young adults: A randomized controlled trial
SourcePLOS One
Public18-25 participants and controls in a food intervention, New Zealnd 2015
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response174
Respondents N =426

Correlate
Author's labelFruits and Vegetable Intervention (FVI)
Page in Source table 3
Our classificationWhat one eats, code N10ab02
Operationalization
Participants were randomly assigned to:
1 Experimental group for  a 14 day Fruits and Vegetable 
Intervention (FVI)
0 Control group instructed to follow diet as usual

The intervention involved:
a: vouchers for purchasing fruits and vegetables and 
e-mail message reminders to increase their consumption
b: two addoitional daily servings of fruits and 
vegetables on top of their normal diet

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AB-md-mqr-v-5-cb=+ ns
Difference change mood in control group
- positive mood  +.01 (53)
- negative mood  -.01 (14)


Correlational finding on Happiness and What one eats
Subject code: N10ab02

StudyConner (2017): study NZ Auckland 2015
TitleLet them eat fruit! The effect of fruit and vegetable consumption on psychological well/being in young adults: A randomized controlled trial
SourcePLOS One
Public18-25 participants and controls in a food intervention, New Zealnd 2015
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response174
Respondents N =426

Correlate
Author's labelVitality
Our classificationWhat one eats, code N10ab02
Operationalization
Participants were asked 'today': Did you feel full of 
life? Did you have a lot of energy? Did you feel worn 
out? Did you feel tired?

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AB-md-mqr-v-5-c
Growth modelling for difference in change over 
time

Vitality

Control Day 1 b= + 58.639 (p<0.001)
EMI Day 1 diff b= -.701 (p=0.810)
FVI Day 1 diff b= -.510 (p=0.024)

Control Change b= -.336 (p=0.101)
EMI Change diff b= +.014(p=0.603)
FVI Change diff b= +.791 (p=0.006)


Correlational finding on Happiness and What one eats
Subject code: N10ab02

StudyConner (2017): study NZ Auckland 2015
TitleLet them eat fruit! The effect of fruit and vegetable consumption on psychological well/being in young adults: A randomized controlled trial
SourcePLOS One
Public18-25 participants and controls in a food intervention, New Zealnd 2015
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response174
Respondents N =426

Correlate
Author's labelFlourishing
Our classificationWhat one eats, code N10ab02
Operationalization
The daily survey included a shortened 3-item version of 
the 8-item Flourishing scale that assessed feelings of 
engagement, purpose in life, and social-emotional 
connectedness, which previous research shows loads on a 
single "flourishing" factor.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AB-md-mqr-v-5-c
Growth modelling for difference in change over 
time

Flourishing

Control Day 1 b= + 14.505 (p<0.001)
EMI Day 1 diff b= +.440 (p=0.455)
FVI Day 1 diff b= -.630 (p=0.305)

Control Change b= -.031 (p=0.242)
EMI Change diff b= -.007(p=0.864)
FVI Change diff b= +.128 (p=0.003)


Correlational finding on Happiness and What one eats
Subject code: N10ab02

StudyConner (2017): study NZ Auckland 2015
TitleLet them eat fruit! The effect of fruit and vegetable consumption on psychological well/being in young adults: A randomized controlled trial
SourcePLOS One
Public18-25 participants and controls in a food intervention, New Zealnd 2015
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response174
Respondents N =426

Correlate
Author's labelFluorishing Behaviors
Our classificationWhat one eats, code N10ab02
Operationalization
The daily survey included 3-items answered on a 5-point 
Likert scale from 0-not at all and 4-Extremely

Questions:
1. How curious were zou today? Did you seek out new 
things or experinece; look for opportunities to 
challenge yourself and grow as a person; or rmbrace the 
unfamiliar?
2. Did you come up with novel or original ideas; 
express yourself in an orginal and useful way; or spend 
time doing artistic activities like: music, painting, 
writing etc. 
3. How motivated were you today? Did you work towards 
your goals, or feel driven today?

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AB-md-mqr-v-5-c
Growth modelling for difference in change over 
time

Flourishing Behaviors

Control Day 1 b= + 1.548 (p<0.001)
EMI Day 1 diff b= -.079 (p=0.476)
FVI Day 1 diff b= -.110 (p=0.350)

Control Change b= -.012 (p=0.038)
EMI Change diff b= +.003(p=0.756)
FVI Change diff b= +.025 (p=0.006)


Correlational finding on Happiness and What one eats
Subject code: N10ab02

StudyConner et al. (2015): study NZ Auckland 2013
TitleOn Carrots and Curiosity: Eating Fruit and Vegetables is associated with greater Flourishing in daily Life.
SourceBritish Journal of Health Psychology , 2015, Vol. 20, 413 - 444 .
URLhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25080035
DOIdoi: 10.1111/bjhp.12113
PublicUniversity students, New Zealand, 2013, followed 13 days
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =405

Correlate
Author's labelconsumption of vegetables
Our classificationWhat one eats, code N10ab02
Operationalization
Self report in diary of the number of servings eaten 
that days of  vegetables: 
- fresh, frozen, canned 
- excluding juice and chips
Observed distributionRange: 0-4; M = 1,27; SD = 0,75
Remarks
Standatd questions in the New Zealand National 
Nutrition Survey 1997 (NNS'97)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AB-md-mqr-v-5-br=+ s
BETWEEN persons association between average daily 
vegetables consumption and average mood
PA: r = +.11 (05)
NA: r = +.00 (ns)
A-AB-md-mqr-v-5-br=+ s
WITHIN person association between vegetables 
consumption and mood during the day:
PA: r = +.04 (001)
NA: r = -.02 (05)


Correlational finding on Happiness and What one eats
Subject code: N10ab02

StudyConner et al. (2015): study NZ Auckland 2013
TitleOn Carrots and Curiosity: Eating Fruit and Vegetables is associated with greater Flourishing in daily Life.
SourceBritish Journal of Health Psychology , 2015, Vol. 20, 413 - 444 .
URLhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25080035
DOIdoi: 10.1111/bjhp.12113
PublicUniversity students, New Zealand, 2013, followed 13 days
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =405

Correlate
Author's labelconsumption of sweets
Our classificationWhat one eats, code N10ab02
Operationalization
Self report in diary of the number of servings eaten 
that days of  sweets: 
- lollies, chocolate, or other confectionary items
Observed distributionRange: 0-3; M = 0.63; SD = 0,49
Remarks
Standatd questions in the New Zealand National 
Nutrition Survey 1997 (NNS'97)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AB-md-mqr-v-5-br=- s
BETWEEN persons association between average daily 
sweets consumption and average mood
PA: r = -.05 (ns)
NA: r = +.06 (ns)
A-AB-md-mqr-v-5-br== p < .S
WITHIN person association between sweets 
consumption and mood during the day:
PA: r = +.03 (05)
NA: r = -.01 (ns)


Correlational finding on Happiness and What one eats
Subject code: N10ab02

StudyConner et al. (2015): study NZ Auckland 2013
TitleOn Carrots and Curiosity: Eating Fruit and Vegetables is associated with greater Flourishing in daily Life.
SourceBritish Journal of Health Psychology , 2015, Vol. 20, 413 - 444 .
URLhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25080035
DOIdoi: 10.1111/bjhp.12113
PublicUniversity students, New Zealand, 2013, followed 13 days
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =405

Correlate
Author's labelconsumption of chips
Our classificationWhat one eats, code N10ab02
Operationalization
Self report in diary of the number of servings eaten 
that days of chips: 
- potato fries, wedges, kumara chips
Observed distributionRange: 0-3; M = 0.27; SD = 0,33
Remarks
Standatd questions in the New Zealand National 
Nutrition Survey 1997 (NNS'97)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AB-md-mqr-v-5-br=+/- s
BETWEEN persons association between average daily 
chips consumption and average mood
PA: r = -.00 (ns)
NA: r = +.14 (05)
A-AB-md-mqr-v-5-br=+ ns
WITHIN person association between chips 
consumption and mood during the day:
PA: r = +.02 (ns)
NA: r = +.01 (ns)


Correlational finding on Happiness and What one eats
Subject code: N10ab02

StudyConner et al. (2015): study NZ Auckland 2013
TitleOn Carrots and Curiosity: Eating Fruit and Vegetables is associated with greater Flourishing in daily Life.
SourceBritish Journal of Health Psychology , 2015, Vol. 20, 413 - 444 .
URLhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25080035
DOIdoi: 10.1111/bjhp.12113
PublicUniversity students, New Zealand, 2013, followed 13 days
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =405

Correlate
Author's labelconsumption of fruits
Page in Source table 2+ 3
Our classificationWhat one eats, code N10ab02
Operationalization
Self report in diary of the number of servings eaten 
that days of  fruit: 
- fresh, frozen, canned or stewed fruit
- excluding fruit juice and dried fruit
Observed distributionRange: 0-4; M = 1,16; SD = 0,76
Remarks
Standatd questions in the New Zealand National 
Nutrition Survey 1997 (NNS'97)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AB-md-mqr-v-5-br=+ s
BETWEEN persons association between average daily 
fruit consumption and average mood
PA: r = +.18 (001)
NA: r = +.00 (ns)
A-AB-md-mqr-v-5-br=+ s
WITHIN person association between fruit 
consumption and mood during the day:
PA: r = +.18 (001)
NA: r = +.00 (ns)


Correlational finding on Happiness and What one eats
Subject code: N10ab02

StudyHuffman & Rizov (2016): study RU 1994
TitleLife Satisfaction and Diet: Evidence from the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey.
SourceSelected Paper prepared for presentation at the 2016 Agricultural & Applied Economics Association Annual Meeting, 2016, 1 - 25, Boston, Massachusetts.
URLhttps://ideas.repec.org/p/ags/aaea16/235148.html
Public16+ aged, general public, Russia, 1994-2005
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =4000

Correlate
Author's labelCalorie consumption
Page in Source 20,24
Our classificationWhat one eats, code N10ab02
Operationalization
Calories (total calories consumed per day) in 
logarithm.
Observed distributionM = 7.54 SD = 0.49

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-u-sq-v-5-aDM=+
Set Image size:   

O-SLu-u-sq-v-5-aOLRC=+.09 p < .05
OLRC controled for:
- age
- education
- household size
- children in household
- fat share in % of daily calories in logarithm
- protein % of daily calories in logarithm
- food diversity (Transformed Berry Index)
- work (is employed)
- gender (male = 1)
- married (married =1)
- is smoker
- is drinker
- health (having problems last month = 1)
- region
- year of observation


Correlational finding on Happiness and What one eats
Subject code: N10ab02

StudyAndersson et al. (2013a): study SE Västra Götalands län 2012 /1
TitleGreenhouse Gas Emission and Subjective Well-Being: An Analalysis of Swedish Households.
SourceEcological Economics, 2014, Vol. 102, 75 - 82
DOIDOI: 10.1016/j.ecolecon.2014.03.018
Public25-65 aged,general public, southwest Sweden, 2012
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response59.9%
Respondents N =2500

Correlate
Author's labelRed meat
Page in Source 79
Our classificationWhat one eats, code N10ab02
Operationalization
Meals per week

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO-u-sq-n-11-aBeta=+.03 ns
Beta controled for:
- education
- gender
- age
- has children


Correlational finding on Happiness and What one eats
Subject code: N10ab02

StudyChang & Nayga Jr. (2010): study TW 2001
TitleChildhood Obesity and Unhappiness: the Influence of Soft Drinks and Fast Food Consumption.
SourceJournal of Happines Studies, 2010, Vol. 11, 261 - 275
DOIDOI:10.1007/s10902-009-9139-4
PublicUnder 12 aged, children, Taiwan, 2001
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2366

Correlate
Author's labelFast food
Page in Source Table 2 & Table 3
Our classificationWhat one eats, code N10ab02
Operationalization
Mother's answer to question:
How often does your child consume the following food?
a. French fries
b. pizza
c. hamburger

0: never
1: seldom
2: sometimes
3: often
4: always
Observed distributionM = 2.86; SD = 1.88
Remarks
Order reversed by WDH team

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-TH-g-rdf-v-3-ar=+.08 ns
(p < .10)
A-TH-g-rdf-v-3-ab=+.05 ns
vs not, evaluated at the sample means (p < .10)

B controlled for:
-Children characteristics
 -age
 -gender
 -health condition
 -dentist
-Household factors
 -family income
 -health condition of family member
-Region and local economy conditions
 -city/country
 -household regional location


Correlational finding on Happiness and What one eats
Subject code: N10ab02

StudyChang & Nayga Jr. (2010): study TW 2001
TitleChildhood Obesity and Unhappiness: the Influence of Soft Drinks and Fast Food Consumption.
SourceJournal of Happines Studies, 2010, Vol. 11, 261 - 275
DOIDOI:10.1007/s10902-009-9139-4
PublicUnder 12 aged, children, Taiwan, 2001
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2366

Correlate
Author's labelSoft drink
Page in Source Table 2 & Table 3
Our classificationWhat one eats, code N10ab02
Operationalization
Mother's answer to question:
How often does your child consume the following drinks?
a. soda 
b. other sugar-sweetened beverages

0: never
1: seldom
2: sometimes
3: often
4: always
Observed distributionM = 3.55; SD = 1.95
Remarks
Order reversed by WDH team

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-TH-g-rdf-v-3-ar=+.04 ns
A-TH-g-rdf-v-3-ab=+.05 ns
vs not, evaluated at the sample means (p < .10)

B controlled for:
-Children characteristics
 -age
 -gender
 -health condition
 -dentist
-Household factors
 -family income
 -health condition of family member
-Region and local economy conditions
 -city/country
 -household regional location


Correlational finding on Happiness and What one eats
Subject code: N10ab02

StudyGschwandtner et al. (2015): study GB 2012
TitleOn the Relationship between Lifestyle and Happiness in the UK.
SourcePaper for 89th Annual Conference of AES, 2015, 1 - 33, Warwick, England
URLhttp://econpapers.repec.org/paper/agsaesc15/204199.htm
Public16+ aged, general public UK, 2012
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =31946

Correlate
Author's labelAverage daily portions of fruits and vegetables
Page in Source table 1 + 2
Our classificationWhat one eats, code N10ab02
Operationalization
Average daily portions of fruit and vegetables
1: none (reference)
2: 1-2
3: 2-3
4: 3-4
5: 4-5
Observed distributionMales: M = 3,86; SD = 3,06. Females: M = 3,02; SD = 2,74

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=+ s
1-2 portions per day (vs none)
- males:  +.09 (05)
- females + 15 (01)
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=+ s
2-3 portions per day (vs none)
- males:  +.16 (01)
- females + 14 (01)
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=+ s
3-4 portions per day (vs none)
- males:  +.19 (01)
- females + 27 (01)
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb=+ s
4-5 portions per day (vs none)
- males:  +.20 (01)
- females + 30 (01)

b's controled for:
- socio-economic backgroud (parents education)
- age 
- education
- marital status
- age of youngest child
- ethnicity
- employment status
- region
- health behavior
  - days walk
  - sporting
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eb-iv=+
Stronger effects in instrumental variable analysis 
in which the net effect of sporting on happiness 
is controled. This suggest a causal effect of 
fruit/vegagetable consumption on happiness


Correlational finding on Happiness and What one eats
Subject code: N10ab02

StudyBlanchflower et al. (2013): study GB Wales 2007
TitleIs Psychological Well-Being Linked to the Consumption of Fruit and Vegetables?
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2013, Vol. 114, 785 - 801
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11205-012-0173-y
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s11205-012-0173-y
Public16+ aged, general public, Wales, UK, 2007-2010
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =49972

Correlate
Author's labelFruit and vegetable consumption
Page in Source Table 6
Our classificationWhat one eats, code N10ab02
Operationalization
Selfreport on daily consumption number of fruit and 
vegetables:
1. 1-2 portions
2. 2-3 portions
3. 3-4 portions 
4. 4-5 portions
5. 5-6 portions 
6. 6-7 portions 
7. 7-8 portions
8. 8+  portions

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-TH-cm-sq-v-5-bb=+.04 p < .05
1-2 portions (vs < 1 portion)
M-TH-cm-sq-v-5-bb=+.07 p < .01
2-3 portions (vs < 1 portion)
M-TH-cm-sq-v-5-bb=+.11 p < .01
3-4 portions (vs < 1 portion)
M-TH-cm-sq-v-5-bb=+.14 p < .01
4-5 portions (vs < 1 portion)
M-TH-cm-sq-v-5-bb=+.16 p < .01
5-6 portions (vs < 1 portion)
M-TH-cm-sq-v-5-bb=+.16 p < .01
6-7 portions (vs < 1 portion)
M-TH-cm-sq-v-5-bb=+.18 p < .01
7-8 portions (vs < 1 portion)
M-TH-cm-sq-v-5-bb=+.17 p < .01
8+  portions (vs < 1 portion)

B's controlled for:
-Demographic characteristics
 -age
 -gender
-Socioeconomic characteristics
 -education
 -occupation
 -household location
-Health
 -disability
 -exercise
 -smoking
 -body mass index


Correlational finding on Happiness and What one eats
Subject code: N10ab02

StudyNabi et al. (2008): study GB London 1985
TitlePositive and Negative Affect and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease: Whitehall 11 Prospective Cohort Study.
SourceBritish Medical Journal, 2008, Vol. 337, 32 - 36
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/20510221.pdf?_=1466603102538
PublicEmployees of a firm, age 35-55, London, United Kingdom, 1985-1990
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response27%
Respondents N =10308

Correlate
Author's labelDaily fruit and vegetables
Page in Source 3
Our classificationWhat one eats, code N10ab02
Operationalization
Daily fruit and vegetables:
0 No  (reference)
1 Yes
Observed distributionNo: 59.0%, Yes: 41.0%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-aDM=+ p < .01
No          M = 17,92
Yes         M = 18,54 
-diffrence      +0,62


Correlational finding on Happiness and What one eats
Subject code: N10ab02

StudyWarner et al. (2017): study US New England 2013
TitleFruit and Vegetable Intake Predicts Positive Affect
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies,2017, Vol.18, 809 - 826
URLhttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10902-016-9749-6
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s10902-016-9749-6
PublicStudents, New England, United States of America, 2013
SampleSampling not reported
Non-Response
Respondents N =1263

Correlate
Author's labelFruit and Vergetable Intake (FVI)
Page in Source 819
Our classificationWhat one eats, code N10ab02
Operationalization
Self report on questions on typical daily servings of 
fruits and vegetables in the last month (FVI)
Rated 0 to 8+
Observed distributionM: 2,02, SD: 2,38

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BW-?-mq-v-5-aAoC=+ p < .014
Positive Affect only.
Negative affect ns

Unaffected by gender
Linear relationship


Correlational finding on Happiness and Where one eats
Subject code: N10ab03

StudyAustrom (1984): study CA Ontario 1982
TitleThe Consequences of Being Single.
SourcePeter Lang Publisher, 1984, New York, USA
Public23-59 aged English speaking, Toronto and Ontario, Canada, 198?
Sample
Non-Response45%
Respondents N =1038

Correlate
Author's labelMeals outside home
Page in Source 237
Our classificationWhere one eats, code N10ab03
Operationalization
Single open-ended question: Aproximately what 
percentage of your meals do you eat outside of your 
place of residence?

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-ar=-.08 p < .05


Correlational finding on Happiness and Where one eats
Subject code: N10ab03

StudyShu & Zhu (2009): study CN 2006
TitleThe Quality of Life iin China.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2009, Vol. 92, 191 - 225
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-008-9350-4
Public20-69 aged, general public, China, 2006
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2000

Correlate
Author's labelHaving meals at home
Page in Source 215,221
Our classificationWhere one eats, code N10ab03
Operationalization
A Having breakfast at home
  1 yes
  0 no
B Having dinner at home
  1 yes
  0 no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-mOR=1.30 p < .05
M-FH-c-sq-v-4-bOR=1.13 ns
C-W-u-sq-v-4-cOR=0.99 ns
M-ACO---mq-v-7-ab=+.08 ns
OR and B controled for
- gender
- age cohort
- educational attainment
- marital status
- household income
- unemployed
- rural residency
- life domain satisfaction
- value priorities


Correlational finding on Happiness and How much one spends on eating
Subject code: N10ab04

StudyNoll & Weick (2015): study DE 2010
TitleConsumption Expenditures and Subjective Well-Being: Emperical Evidence from Germany
SourceInternational Review of Economics, 2015, Vol. 62, 101 - 119
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s12232-015-0219-3
Public16+ aged, general public, Germany, 2010
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =30000

Correlate
Author's labelExpenditures on nutrition
Page in Source Table 4, 5
Our classificationHow much one spends on eating, code N10ab04
Operationalization
Selfreport on questions:
Did you or another household member make any of the 
nutrition expenditures?
If yes: how much in total did these expenditures cost 
your household in 2009?
Remarks
Expressed in natural logarithm (ln)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-bdb=+.01 ns
B controlled for:
-Expenditures on:
 -Clothing
 -Housing and energy
 -Furniture and housing facilities
 -Health
 -Mobility
 -Communication
 -Leisure
 -Education
 -Hotels and restaurants
 -Other
-Household size
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-bdb=-.01 ns
B additionally controlled for
-Household net income
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-bdb=-.00 ns
B additionally controlled for
-Region in Germany
-Age
-Marital status
-Education
-Employment status
-Self-rated health status


Correlational finding on Happiness and How much one spends on eating
Subject code: N10ab04

StudyHeadey et al. (2008): study HU 1996
TitleMoney does not Buy Happiness...Or does it? A Reconsideration Based on the Combined Effects of Wealth, Income and Consumption.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2008, Vol. 87, 65 - 82
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11205-007-9146-y
Public16+ aged, general public, Hungary, 1996
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =3055

Correlate
Author's labelEquivalised consumption / 1000
Page in Source 10, 16
Our classificationHow much one spends on eating, code N10ab04
Operationalization
For consumption the food expenditure (food eaten at 
home and meals out) served as a proxy for total 
non-durables.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-fr=+.22
r only reported in original Discuusion paper
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-fb=+.19 p < .001
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-fb=+.13 p < .001
B and Beta controlled for
- gender
- age
- partnered
- education
- in working force
- unemployed
- bad health


Correlational finding on Happiness and When one eats
Subject code: N10ab05

StudyMujcica (2016): study AU 2007
TitleEvolution of Well-Being and Happiness After Increases in Consumption of Fruit and Vegetables.
SourceAJPH, 2016, Vol 106, 1504 - 1510
URLhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27400354
DOIdoi: 10.2105/AJPH.2016.303260.
Public18+ aged general public, Australia, followed 3 years 2007-2009
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =12385

Correlate
Author's labelRegular breakfast
Page in Source table 1
Our classificationWhen one eats, code N10ab05
Operationalization
Eat breakfast every day
1 yes
0 no
Observed distributionM: 0.70, SD: 0,46

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-db-fix=+.11 p < .004
b-fix CI95 [+.03, +.18] controled for:
- CHANGE daily consumption of fruits and 
vegetables
- CURRENT
  - socio-demographics
    - age
    - income
    - education
    - marital status
    - employment
  - number of young children in household
  - what one eats
      - never eat red meat
      - never eat fish
      - avoid fatty foods
  - health behavior
    - exercise regularly
    - non-smoker
    - drink alcohol
  - long-term health condition
  - BMI


Correlational finding on Happiness and Concern about nutrition
Subject code: N10ac01

StudySchulz et al. (1985): study AT 1984
TitleLebensqualität in Österreich. (Quality of Life in Austria).
SourceReport Institut für Soziologie der Sozial- und Wirtschaftswissenschaftlichen Fakultät der Universität Wien, 1985, Vienna, Austria
Public16+ aged, general public, Austria, 1984
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =1776

Correlate
Author's labelHealthy eating habits
Page in Source 52
Our classificationConcern about nutrition, code N10ac01
Operationalization
Direct question:"Do you pay attention to healthy food 
habits?"
Answer categories: "In general I don't take care/ in 
general I take care"

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-Sum-c-mq-v-5-ar=+.02
O-Sum-c-mq-v-5-aBeta=+.05 p < .05
ß controlled for: gender, age, community size, 
education, professional status, marital status, 
income, body weight, weight control, alcohol 
consumption, physical fittness activity, 
psychosomatic complains, illness and satisfaction 
with health.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Concern about nutrition
Subject code: N10ac01

StudyVentegodt (1995): study DK 1993
TitleLiskvalitet I Danmark. (Quality of Life in Denmark. Results from a Population Survey).
SourceForskningscentrets Forlag, 1995, Copenhagen, Denmark
Public18-88 aged, general public, Denmark, 1993
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response39%
Respondents N =1494

Correlate
Author's labeldiet
Page in Source 178
Our classificationConcern about nutrition, code N10ac01
Operationalization
Single question:
"How is your diet ?"
a: I eat what I like
b: I think my diet is healthy
c: I don't think my diet is healthy
d: I eat so as to keep my weight down
e: I eat ready-prepared dishes or fast food 
   at least once a week
f: I eat vegatarian
g: Information campaigns influence my 
   dietary habits
Observed distributionN: a:833, b:831, c:160, d:180, e:188, f:32, g:153
Remarks
The same respondents may appear in several groups

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aDMt=
 a: Mt=7.89
 b: Mt=7.88
 c: Mt=7.14
 d: Mt=7.65
 e: Mt=7.63
 f: Mt=8.05
 g: Mt=7.73
All Mt=7.89
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eDMt=
 a: Mt=7.50
 b: Mt=7.64
 c: Mt=6.55
 d: Mt=7.46
 e: Mt=7.25
 f: Mt=7.83
 g: Mt=7.54
All Mt=7.46
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haDMt=
 a: Mt=7.00
 b: Mt=7.08
 c: Mt=6.39
 d: Mt=7.10
 e: Mt=6.83
 f: Mt=7.19
 g: Mt=6.95
All Mt=6.98


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with one's nutrition
Subject code: N10ac02

StudyGuardiola et al. (2013): study MX Yucatán 2008
TitleThe Influence of Water Access in Subjective Well-Being: Some Evidence in Yucatan, Mexico
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2013, Vol. 110, 207 - 218
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11205-011-9925-3
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s11205-011-9925-3
Public373 heads of household, town in rural area, Mexico, Yucatan, 2008
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =373

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with nurture
Page in Source 8
Our classificationSatisfaction with one's nutrition, code N10ac02
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question: 'How do you feel in 
relation to your nurture'. Rated on a 0-10 numerical 
scale.
Observed distributionM = 7,87, SD = 1,58

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-gb=+.11 p < .06
B controled for satisfaction with:
- health
- work
- money
- house
- leisure
- community
- water

Values not much different from model without 
water.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with one's nutrition
Subject code: N10ac02

StudyUglanova (2006): study RU 1993
TitleAnalysis of Happiness Variable in Monitoring of Social and Economic Change in Russia. 1993 - 2.
SourceData Independent Institute for Social Policy, 2006, Russia No report available. Findings directly entered in the World Database of Happiness.
URLhttp://sofist.socpol.ru
Public16+ aged, general public, Russia, 1993
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response?
Respondents N =2018

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with nutrition
Page in Source question 19
Our classificationSatisfaction with one's nutrition, code N10ac02
Operationalization
How satisfied are you with your family nutrition? 
1 completely dissatisfied
2 rather dissatisfied
3 rather satisfied
4 quite satisfied
- DK/NA
Observed distribution1: 15,8% 2: 35,6% 3: 34,4% 4: 12% DK/NA: 2,2%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-hDM=+
1: M = 1,98
2: M = 2,36
3: M = 2,73
4: M = 3,14
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-hrs=+.42 p < .000


Correlational finding on Happiness and Satisfaction with one's nutrition
Subject code: N10ac02

StudyBharadwaj & Wilkening (1977): study US Wisconsin 1972
TitleThe Prediction of Perceived Well-Being.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1977, Vol. 4, 421 - 439
DOIDOI:10.1007/BF00353143
Public18+ aged, general public, Wisconsin, USA, 197?
Sample
Non-Response12%
Respondents N =1423

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with food
Page in Source 430
Our classificationSatisfaction with one's nutrition, code N10ac02
Operationalization
direct closed question rated on a 7-point scale, 
ranging from "completely satisfied" to "completely 
dissatisfied".

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sqt-v-7-ar=+.3?
O-SLW-u-sqt-v-7-aBeta=ns
All ß`s controlled for satisfaction with 
family-life, standard of living, work, health, 
sparetime activities, income, community, housing, 
spiritual matters, education, organizational 
involvement,natural environment, national 
government.
AGE                INCOME
under 30  ß:  ns   under $4000    ß:+.06
30-49     ß:+.07   $4000- 7999    ß:  ns
50-64     ß:+.ns   $8000-15999    ß:  ns
over 65   ß:  ns   over $16000    ß:+.05


Appendices

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used

CodeFull Text
A-AB-cw-rdf-v-7-aRating by mother of infants affective reactions

During the last week how often did your child show
a: pleasure in high intensity situations such as peek-a boo game
b: pleasure in low intensity situations, such as playing quitly with a favorite toy
c: smile in sitiations such as being undressed
d: distress to limitations
e: fear
f: sadness
Each rated:
1 never
2 very rarely
3 less than half the time
4 half the time
5 more than half the time
6 almost always
7 always

Computation: (a+b+c) - (d+e+f)

Items part of the Revised Infant Behavior Questionnaire IBQ
A-AB-md-mqr-v-5-bSelfreport on 19 questions repeated 13 days

To what extent did you feel today,,
A calm
B cheerful
C pleasant
D energetic
E enthusiastic
F exited
G sad
H dejected
I depressed
J nervous
K anxious
L tense
O angry
P irritable
Q hostile

Rated
1 not at all
2
3
4
5 extremely

Computation: (A to F) - (G toQ)
A-AB-md-mqr-v-5-cSelfreport on 19 questions repeated 13 days

To what extent did you feel today,,
A happy
B enthusiastic
C relaxed
D sad
E anxious
F angry

Rated
1 not at all
2
3
4
5 extremely

Computation: (A +B+C) - (D+E+F)
A-AOL-m-sq-v-5-aSingle direct question:

How are you feeling now....?
5 very good
4 good
3 neither good nor poor
2 poor
1 very poor
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-aSelfreport on 11 questions:

"During the past few weeks, did you ever feel.....?"
A angry
B bored
C could not get going
D depressed
E lonely
F too busy
G uneasy
H exited
I on top of the world
J pleased
K proud

Answer options and scoring:
- yes = 1
- no = 0

Positive Affect Score (PAS): summed scores on H, I, J, K
Negative Affect Score (NAS): summed scores A, B, C, D, E, F, G
Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS

Possible range: -7 to +5

Name: Bradburn's `Affect Balance Scale' (modified version)
A-BW-?-mq-v-5-aSelfreport on 20 questions:

Lead item not reported.

A nervous
B distressed
C afraid
D jittery
E irritable
F upset
G scared
H exited
I ashamed
J guilty
K hostile
L active
M determined
N inspired
O enthusiastic
P alert
Q attentive
R proud
S strong
T interested

Rated:
1: not at all
.
.
5 a lot

Negative affect score (NAS): A to K
Positive affect score (PAS): L to T
Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS - NAS

Name: Watson's PANAS version not reported
A-CA-cw-rdf-v-7-aRating by parents of smiling and laughter in 15 different situations, such as

During the last week, when being undressed, how often did your child smile or laugh?
1 never
2 very rarely
3 less than half the time
4 about half the time
5 more than half the time
6 almost always
7 always

Full list of situations not reported

Part of Rothbart Infant Behavior Questionnaire IBQ
A-CA-cw-rdf-v-7-abRating by parents of pleasure in different high stimulus intensity situations, such as:

During a peek-a-boo game, how often did the baby smile?
1 never
2 very rarely
3 less than half the time
4 about half the time
5 more than half the time
6 almost always
7 always

Full list of situations not reported.

Part of Rothbart Revised Infant Behavior Questionnaire
A-CA-cw-rdf-v-7-baRating by parents of pleasure in different low stimulus intensity situations, such as:

When playing quietly with one of his/her favorite toys, how often did the baby show pleasure?
1 never
2 very rarely
3 less than half the time
4 about half the time
5 more than half the time
6 almost always
7 always

Full list of situations not reported.

Part of Rothbart Revised Infant Behavior Questionnaire
A-TH-g-rdf-v-3-aRating by mother in response to single question:

How often does your child feel unhappy, sad or depressed?
1 often
2 selden
3 never
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cSelfreport on single question:

Here is ladder representing the 'ladder of life'. Let's suppose the top of the ladder represents the best possible life for you; and the bottom, the worst possible life for you. On which step of the ladder do you feel you personally stand at the present time?
10 best possible
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 worst possible life

This question was followed (not preceded) by items on life 5 years ago and 5 years from now.
C-W-u-sq-v-4-cSelfreport on single question:

How much do you feel you are accomplishing what you want out of life?
4 a great deal
3 some
2 very little
1 none
- don't know
M-ACO---mq-v-7-aSelfreport on 3 questions:

A All things considered, would you say you are happy these days?
5 very happy
4 pretty happy
3 neither happy, not unhappy
2 not too happy
1 very unhappy

B How often do you feel that you are really enjoying life these days?
4 often
3 sometimes
2 rarely
1 never

C How much do you feel you are accomplishing what you want ou of life?
4 a great deal
3 some
2 very little
1 none

Computation not reported: 0 to 6
M-AO-u-sq-n-11-aSelfreport on single question:

We want to know how you feel. Please indicate on the scale below.
10 means that you are doing well, 0 means that you are doing badly
10 you are doing well
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 doing badly
M-FH-c-sq-v-4-bSelfreport on single question:

How often do you feel that you are really enjoying life these days?
4 often
3 sometimes
2 rarely
1 never
- don't know
M-TH-cm-sq-v-5-bSelfreport on single question:

How much of the time during the past 4 weeks have you felt happy?
5 all the time
4 most of the time
3 sometimes
2 rarely
1 never
- don't know
- don't remember

Part of 9 item ODIN Affect Balance Scale (A-AB/cm/mq/v/5/..)
M-TH-cm-sq-v-6-aSelfreport on single question:

During the past 4 weeks….. Have you been a happy person?
6 all of the time
5 most of the time
4 a good bit of the time
3 some of the time
2 a little of the time
1 none of the time

Item MH5 in SF-36 (Medical Outcome Study 36 item Short Form)
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-aSelfreport on single question:

How do you feel about your life as a whole.....?
7 delighted
6 pleased
5 mostly satisfied
4 mixed
3 mostly dissatisfied
2 unhappy
1 terrible

Name: Andrews & Withey's `Delighted-Terrible Scale' (original version)
O-HL-c-sq-n-11-bSelfreport on single question:

All in all, how happy are you with your life these days?
0 extremely unhappy
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 extremely happy
- cannot choose
- skipped
O-HL-c-sq-v-4-cSelfreport on single question

In general, how do you feel about your life at present?
4 I feel very happy
3 I feel happy
2 I don't feel happy
1 I am not happy at all
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-haSelfreport on single question

How happy are you now?
5 very happy
4 happy
3 neither happy nor unhappy
2 unhappy
1 very unhappy
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-mSelfreport on single question

All things considered, would you say you are happy these days?
5 very happy
4 pretty happy
3 neither happy, not unhappy
2 not too happy
1 very unhappy
- Don't know
O-HL-g-sq-v-4-mSelfreport on single question

Ingeneral, how would you describe your happiness?
4 very happy
3 mostly happy
2 a little bit happy
1 not happy at all
O-HL-u-sq-n-11-gSelfreport on single question:

In general terms, how happy do you feel with your life?
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Scale labels not reported
O-HP-g-sq-ol-7-aSelfreport on single question:

"Generally speaking are you a happy person.......?"

Responses were made on an open line scale, and were later coded in 7 categories:
1 very unhappy
2
3
4
5
6
7 very happy.
O-SLu-c-sq-v-5-eSelfreport on single question:

'How satisfied are you with your life now?'
5 very satisfied
2 satisfied
3 neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
2 dissatisfied
1 very dissatisfied
O-SLu-u-sq-v-5-aSelfreport on single question:

On the whole, are you…?
5 fully satisfied
4 not fully satisfied but generally
3 neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
2 still dissatisfied
1 extremely dissatisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-10-fSelfreport on single question:

All in all, to what degree are you satisfied with your life now?
1 dissatisfied
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 very satisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-bdSelfreport on single question:

All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life as a whole these days?
0 completely dissatisfied
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 completely satisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-7-aSelfreport on single question:

We have talked about various parts of your life, now I want to ask you about your life as a whole. How satisfied are you with your life as a whole these days.....?
7 completely satisfied
6
5
4 neutral
3
2
1 completely dissatisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-v-4-hSelfreport on single question:

How satisfied are you with your life as a whole these days?
4 quite satisfied
3 rather satisfied
2 rather unsatisfied
1 completely dissatisfied
- not applicable
- hard to say
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-tSelfreport on single question:

How would you describe your satisfaction with life in general at present......?
1 bad
2 poor
3 fair
4 good
5 excellent
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-aSelfreport on single question:

All things considered, how satisfied or dissatisfied are you with your life as a whole?
10 completely satisfied
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 completely dissatisfied
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dSelfreport on single question:

All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life?
Again, pick a number between 0 and 10 to indicate how satisfied you are.
0 totally dissatisfied
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 totally satisfied
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-eSelfreport onsingle question:

How dissatisfied or satisfied are you with.. Your life overall?
1 not satisfied at all
2
3
4
5
6
7 completely satisfied
O-SLW-u-sqt-v-7-aSelfreport on single question, asked twice in interview:

Considering everything, how satisfied are you with your life as a whole........?
7 completely satisfied
6
5
4
3
2
1 completely dissatisfied

Summation: both scores added
Possible range: 2 to 14
O-Sum-c-mq-v-5-aSelfreport on 3 questions:

A When you consider your present life as-a-whole, would you say you are....?
5 very happy
4 fairly happy
3 rather happy than unhappy
2 rather unhappy than happy
1 very unhappy
- DK/NA

B When you consider your present life as-a-whole, would you say you are.....?
5 very satisfied
4 fairly satisfied
3 rather satisfied than dissatisfied
2 rather dissatisfied than satisfied
1 fairly dissatisfied
- DK/NA

C How do you feel right now? Is your well-being.....?
5 very high
4 high
3 moderate
2 rather low
1 very low
- DK/NA

Summation: The summed scores were divided in three strata: low, medium and high quality of life


Appendix 2: Statistics used

SymbolExplanation
AoCANALYSIS of COVARIANCE (ANCOVA)
Type: statistical procedure
Measurement level: Correlates: at least one nominal and at least one metric, Happiness: metric.

Just as in an ANOVA, in an ANCOVA the total happiness variability, expressed as the sum of squares, is partitioned into several parts, each of which is assigned to a source of variability. At least two of those sources are the variability of the correlates, in case there is one for each correlate, and always one other is the residual variability, which includes all unspecified influences on the happiness variable. Each sum of squares has its own number of degrees of freedom (df), which sum up to Ne -1 for the total variability. If a sum of squares (SS) is divided by its own number of df, a mean square (MS) is obtained. The ratio of two correctly selected mean squares has an F-distribution under the hypothesis that the corresponding association has a zero-value.

In an Analysis of Covariance, the treatment means for all levels of the nominal correlate are 'adjusted' for differences in the mean values of the metric correlate.
bREGRESSION COEFFICIENT (non-standardized) by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: unlimited

Meaning:
b > 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a higher happiness rating on average.
B < 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a lower happiness rating on average.
B = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate.
b-fixREGRESSION COEFICIENT in fixed effects analysis
Type: test statistic
WDH symbol: b-fix
Primary correlate level: metric
Secondary correlate level: nonmetric
Happiness level: metric
Theoretical range: unlimited
Meaning:
Variant of usual (non-standardized) regression coefficient (b), which controls for the secondary variables, by focusing on differences from a fixed level, such as the mean in a category. Aims to reduce the residual variance and to improve the precision of the regression coefficient.

References:
Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fixed_effects_model
Non-technical text: http://www.jblumenstock.com/files/courses/econ174/FEModels.pdf
b-ivREGRESSION COEFFICIENT in regression ananlysis with instrumental variable as one or more explanatory variables
Type: test statistic.
Correlate level: metric, Happiness level: metric
Theoretical range: unlimited

Meaning:
Variant of usual (non-standardized) regression coefficient (b), which controls for correlation of happiness with a variable that is unrelated to the independent variable, e.g. for b of happiness with body length in an analysis of the relation between happiness and lottery playing, assuming that there is no relation between body length and lottery playing. Aims to eliminate reversed causality and spurious correlation.

References:
Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Instrumental_variable
http://homepage.univie.ac.at/Christine.Zulehner/iv.pdf
Beta STANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENT by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic.

Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric.
Range: [-1 ; +1]

Meaning:
beta > 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta < 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta = 0 « no correlation.
beta = + 1 or -1 « perfect correlation.
D%DIFFERENCE in PERCENTAGES
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate level: dichotomous, but nominal or ordinal theoretically possible as well. Happiness level: dichotomous
Range: [-100; +100]

Meaning: the difference of the percentages happy people at two correlate levels.
DMDIFFERENCE of MEANS
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Range: depending on the happiness rating scale of the author; range symmetric about zero.

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness, as measured on the author's rating scale, between the two correlate levels.
DMtDIFFERENCE of MEANS AFTER TRANSFORMATION
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: [-10; +10]

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness (happiness measured at a 0-10 rating scale) between the two correlate levels.
GGOODMAN & Kruskal's GAMMA
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: ordinal, Happinessl: ordinal
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
G = 0 « no rank correlation
G = +1 « strongest possible rank correlation, where high correlate values correspond to high happiness ratings.
G = -1 « strongest possible rank correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness ratings.
OLRCORDERED LOGIT REGRESSION COEFFICIENT
Statistic: Ordered logit regression coefficient
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: ordered responses
Theoretical range: unlimited

OLRC > 0 A higher level corresponds with the probability of a higher happiness rating.
OLRC< 0 A higher level corresponds with the probability of a lower happiness rating.
OLRC = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate.

Remarks:
Signs and significance of coefficients estimated by ordered logit estimates are comparable to REGRESSION COEFFICIENTS estimated by LEAST SQUARES (OLS). Relative magnitudes of the regressor to those of other regressors are also comparable to Ordinary Least squares Estimations. Absoulute magnitudes of coefficients are not interpretable.
ORODDS RATIO
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness level: dichotomous
Range: nonnegative unlimited

Meaning:
OR = 1 « no association at all;
OR = 0 or infinite « at least one level of the correlate allows an error-free prediction of the happiness.
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 « no correlation ,
r = 1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
rsSPEARMAN'S RANK CORRELATION COEFFICIENT
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: ordinal, Happiness: ordinal.
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
rs = 0 « no rank correlation
rs = 1 « perfect rank correlation, where high correlate values are associated with high happiness ratings
rs =-1 « perfect rank correlation, where high correlate values are associated with low happiness ratings


Appendix 3: About the World Database of Happiness

Structure of the collections

The World Database of Happiness is an archive of research findings on subjective enjoyment of life .
It brings together findings that are scattered throughout many studies and provides a basis for synthetic work.

World literature on subjective wellbeing


Selection on fit with definition of happiness

Bibliography    and     Directory    

Selection of empirical studies and within these on valid measurement: Happiness measures
Abstracting and classification of findings

How happy people are, distributional findings What goes together with happiness

Happiness in nations
Happiness in regions
Happiness in publics
Correlational findings

  Listing of comparable findings in nations  
States of nations   ,   Trends in nations


Size of the collections
12061 publications in Bibliography of happiness, of which 6298 report an empirical study that is eligible for inclusion in the findings archive.
1152 measures of happiness, mostly single survey questions varying in wording and response scale.
12311 distributional findings in the general public, of which 8552 in 173 nations (former nations and de facto nations included) and 3759 findings in 2455 regions and cities in nations.
2124 studies with findings in 160 specific publics.
15579 correlational findings observed in 2062 studies, excerpted from 1588 publications.

Appendix 4 Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness

Main Subjects Subject Description Number of Studies
A01ACTIVITY (how much one does)56
A02ACTIVITY: PATTERN (what one does)120
A03AFFECTIVE LIFE82
A04AGE686
A05AGGRESSION14
A06ANOMY33
A07APPEARANCE (good looks)24
A08ATTITUDES12
A09AUTHORITARIANISM4
B01BIRTH CONTROL0
B02BIRTH HISTORY (own birth)205
B03BODY105
C01CHILDREN12
C02CHILDREN: WANT FOR (Parental aspirations)13
C03CHILDREN: HAVING (parental status)318
C04CHILDREN: CHARACTERISTICS OF ONE'S CHILDREN37
C05CHILDREN: RELATION WITH ONE'S CHILDREN19
C06CHILDREN: REARING OF ONE'S CHILDREN (parental behavior)35
C07COMMUNAL LIVING16
C08CONCERNS46
C09CONSUMPTION119
C10COPING64
C11CREATIVENESS7
C12CRIME2
C13CULTURE (Arts and Sciences)49
D01DAILY JOYS & HASSLES7
D02DISASTER1
E01EDUCATION533
E02EMPLOYMENT 815
E03ETHNICITY173
E04EXPRESSIVE BEHAVIOR12
F01FAMILY OF ORIGIN (earlier family for adults, current for young)331
F02FAMILY OF PROCREATION106
F03FAMILY OF RELATIVES192
F04FARMING66
F05FREEDOM56
F06FRIENDSHIP240
G01GENDER640
G02GRIEF1
H01HABITS2
H02HANDICAP49
H03HAPPINESS: VIEWS ON HAPPINESS121
H04HAPPINESS: DISPERSION OF HAPPINESS19
H05HAPPINESS: CAREER227
H06HAPINNESS: EFFECT OF CONDITIONS FOR HAPPINESS1
H07HAPPINESS: CORRESPONDENCE OF DIFFERENT MEASURES346
H08HAPPINESS OF OTHERS6
H09HAPPINESS: REPUTATION OF HAPPINESS26
H10HEALTH-BEHAVIOR50
H11HELPING16
H12HOPE36
H13HOUSEHOLD: COMPOSITION255
H14HOUSEHOLD: WORK49
H15HOUSING270
I01INCOME1077
I02INSTITUTIONAL LIVING44
I03INTELLIGENCE86
I04INTERESTS17
I05INTERVIEW 87
I06INTIMACY147
L01LANGUAGE18
L02LEADERSHIP14
L03LEISURE330
L04LIFE APPRAISALS: OTHER THAN HAPPINESS463
L05LIFE CHANGE71
L06LIFE EVENTS140
L07LIFE GOALS119
L08LIFE HISTORY11
L09LIFE STYLE 40
L10LOCAL ENVIRONMENT710
L11LOTTERY13
L12LOVE-LIFE44
M01MARRIAGE: MARITAL STATUS CAREER109
M02MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS887
M03MARRIAGE: RELATIONSHIP155
M04MARRIAGE: PARTNER82
M05MEANING31
M06MEDICAL TREATMENT107
M07MENTAL HEALTH308
M08MIGRATION: TO OTHER COUNTRY98
M09MIGRATION: MOVING WITHIN COUNTRY (residential mobility)49
M10MIGRATION: MIGRANT WORK5
M11MILITARY LIFE14
M12MODERNITY5
M13MOOD340
M14MOTIVATION21
M15MOBILITY21
N01NATION: NATIONALITY70
N02NATION: ERA (temporal period)124
N03NATION: NATIONAL CHARACTER (modal personality)75
N04NATION: CONDITION IN ONE'S NATION1054
N05NATION: POSITION OF ONE'S NATION16
N06NATION: ATTITUDES TO ONES NATION209
N07NATION: LIVABILITY OF ONE'S NATION63
N08NATION: ATTITUDINAL CLIMATE17
N09NATION: REGION137
N10NUTRITION54
N11NATION: AREA2
O01OCCUPATION224
O02ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION17
P01PERSONALITY: HISTORY56
P02PERSONALITY: CHANGE11
P03PERSONALITY: CURRENT ORGANIZATION10
P04PERSONALITY: CURRENT TRAITS722
P05PERSONALITY: LATER21
P06PHYSICAL HEALTH 829
P07PLANNING11
P08POLITICAL BEHAVIOUR285
P09POPULARITY30
P10POSSESSIONS156
P11PRISON3
P12PROBLEMS30
P13PSYCHO-SOMATIC COMPLAINTS63
P14PETS4
R01RELIGION427
R02RESOURCES33
R03RETIREMENT154
R04ROLES31
S01SCHOOL208
S02SELF-IMAGE313
S03SEX-LIFE77
S04SLEEP17
S05SOCIAL MOBILITY25
S06SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: PERSONAL CONTACTS99
S07SOCIAL PARTICIPATION : VOLUNTARY ASSOCIATIONS152
S08SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: TOTAL (personal + associations)54
S09SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS191
S10SOCIAL SUPPORT: RECEIVED117
S11SOCIAL SUPPORT: PROVIDED24
S12SPORTS69
S13STIMULANTS93
S14SUICIDE10
S15SUMMED DETERMINANTS168
T01TIME 106
T02THERAPY58
T03TOLERANCE39
T05TRUST47
V01VALUES: CAREER6
V02VALUES: CURRENT PREFERENCES (own)164
V03VALUES: CLIMATE (current values in environment)13
V04VALUES: SIMILARITY (current fit with others)13
V05VALUES: LIVING UP TO18
V06VICTIM 32
W01WAR7
W02WISDOM1
W03WORK: CAREER1
W04WORK: CONDITIONS127
W05WORK: ATTITUDES412
W06WORK: PERFORMANCE (current)40
W07WORRIES57
X01UNCLASSIFIED34


Appendix 5: Related Subjects

SubjectRelated Subject(s)
N10NUTRITIONC09ab02iFood
N10aa01Earlier nutritionL08aaEarlier life (antecedents of happiness)
N10aa02Change in nutritionL08abChange in life
N10aa03Later nutritionL08acLater life (consequences of happiness)
N10ab02What one eatsS13STIMULANTS
N10ab03Where one eatsL03ac02bEating/drinking out
N10ab04How much one spends on eatingL09acConsumption
N10ab05When one eatsA02ac01Eating
N10ab05When one eatsT01acCurrent time-organization
N10ac01Concern about nutritionH10adAttitudes to health-maintenance

A report of the World Database of Happiness, Correlational Findings