Findings on Happiness and MOBILITY

World Database of Happiness

Correlational Findings on Happiness and MOBILITY
Subject Code: M15

© on data collection: Ruut Veenhoven, Erasmus University Rotterdam

Classification of Findings
Subject Code Description Nr of Studies
on this Subject
M15MOBILITY0
M15aaMobility career0
M15abCurrent mobility14
M15acAttitudes to mobility7
 
Appendices
Appendix 1Happiness measures used 
Appendix 2Statistics used 
Appendix 3About the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 4Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 5Related Subjects 

Cite as:    Veenhoven, R.: Findings on Happiness and MOBILITY
World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings
Internet: http://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/top_sub.php?code=M15
Erasmus University Rotterdam, 2018, Netherlands

Correlational finding on Happiness and Current mobility
Subject code: M15ab

StudyMollenkopf & Kaspar (2005): study DE 2000
TitleAgeing in Rural Areas of East and West Germany: Increasing Similarities and Remaining Differences.
SourceEuropean Journal of Aging, 2005, Vol. 2, 120 - 130
DOIdoi:10.1007/s10433-005-0029-2
Public55+ aged, general public, rural areas, East and West Germany, 2000
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response41,6%
Respondents N =762

Correlate
Author's labelCar use as passenger
Page in Source 127
Our classificationCurrent mobility, code M15ab
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question
Question: Do you have someone to drive you if neccesary 
(or if you want)? Who is it?

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-baBeta=-.01 ns
Beta controlled for:
- Socio-demographic: 
   - sex
   - age
   - satisfaction with finances
- Health-related:
   - activities of daily living
   - visu-motoric coordination
   - affect balance score
   - satisfaction with health
- Social network:
   - household type
   - network variety
- Housing:
   - basic household features
   - home ownership
   - satisfaction with housing
- Living area:
   - available services
   - neighbourhood features
   - satisfaction with living area
- Mobility:
   - car use as driver
   - satisfaction with public transport
   - satisfaction with mobility
- Leisure time activities:
   - outdoor leisure activities
   - satisfaction with leisure activities

No interaction with region (East/West Germany)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current mobility
Subject code: M15ab

StudyMollenkopf & Kaspar (2005): study DE 2000
TitleAgeing in Rural Areas of East and West Germany: Increasing Similarities and Remaining Differences.
SourceEuropean Journal of Aging, 2005, Vol. 2, 120 - 130
DOIdoi:10.1007/s10433-005-0029-2
Public55+ aged, general public, rural areas, East and West Germany, 2000
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response41,6%
Respondents N =762

Correlate
Author's labelCar use as driver
Page in Source 127
Our classificationCurrent mobility, code M15ab
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question
Question: How often do you drive a car?

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-baBeta=+.10 ns
Beta controlled for:
- Socio-demographic: 
   - sex
   - age
   - satisfaction with finances
- Health-related:
   - activities of daily living
   - visu-motoric coordination
   - affect balance score
   - satisfaction with health
- Social network:
   - household type
   - network variety
- Housing:
   - basic household features
   - home ownership
   - satisfaction with housing
- Living area:
   - available services
   - neighbourhood features
   - satisfaction with living area
- Mobility:
   - car use as passenger
   - satisfaction with public transport
   - satisfaction with mobility
- Leisure time activities:
   - outdoor leisure activities
   - satisfaction with leisure activities

Interaction with region: stronger in East Germany


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current mobility
Subject code: M15ab

StudyDuarte et al. (2010): study ZZ Various nation sets 2007
TitleNew Approaches in transporting Planning: Happiness and transport Economics.
SourceNetnomics, 2010, Vol. 11, 5 - 32
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11066-009-9037-2
Public18+ aged, general public, multiple nations, 2007
SampleNon-probability snowball sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1084

Correlate
Author's labelHome-work distance
Page in Source 22
Our classificationCurrent mobility, code M15ab
Operationalization
Home location:
A: Central
B: Urban
C: Suburban
D: Rural

Work location:
A: Central
B: Urban
C: Suburban
D: Rural

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-n-10-dDM=
The most happy live and work in the same area.
The least happy live in urban area and work in 
rural area.
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Current mobility
Subject code: M15ab

StudyDuarte et al. (2010): study ZZ Various nation sets 2007
TitleNew Approaches in transporting Planning: Happiness and transport Economics.
SourceNetnomics, 2010, Vol. 11, 5 - 32
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11066-009-9037-2
Public18+ aged, general public, multiple nations, 2007
SampleNon-probability snowball sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1084

Correlate
Author's labelTransport mode use. Work-related trips
Page in Source 23
Our classificationCurrent mobility, code M15ab
Operationalization
A: Bicycle
B: Walking
C: Metro
D: Train
E: Others
F: Car
G: Bus

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-n-10-dDM=
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Current mobility
Subject code: M15ab

StudyGagliardi et al. (2010): study ZZ Western Europe 2000
TitleAssociations of Personal and Mobility Resources with Subjective Well-being Among Older Adults in Italy and Germany.
SourceArchives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 2010, Vol. 50, 42 -47
URLhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167494309000326
Public55+ aged, Germany and Italy, 2000
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2118

Correlate
Author's labelDriving car
Page in Source 44
Our classificationCurrent mobility, code M15ab
Operationalization
1: Yes
0: No
Observed distribution% Yes: Germany: 45% (N=1518) Italy: 48% (N=600)
Remarks
Full question not reported.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-baOR=1.21 p < .246
Germany: CI95 [0.9-1.7]
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-baOR=1.11 p < .691
Italy: CI95 [0.7-1.8]

The authors divided life satisfaction into two 
groups of high and low life satisfaction for 
logistic regression, with the 75th percentile 
being the cut-off point.

OR is adjusted for:
- age
- gender


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current mobility
Subject code: M15ab

StudyGagliardi et al. (2010): study ZZ Western Europe 2000
TitleAssociations of Personal and Mobility Resources with Subjective Well-being Among Older Adults in Italy and Germany.
SourceArchives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 2010, Vol. 50, 42 -47
URLhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167494309000326
Public55+ aged, Germany and Italy, 2000
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2118

Correlate
Author's labelUse of public transport
Page in Source 44
Our classificationCurrent mobility, code M15ab
Operationalization
1: Yes
0: No
Observed distribution% Yes: Germany: 53% (N=1518) Italy: 47% (N=600)
Remarks
Full question not reported.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-baOR=0.77 p < .071
Germany: CI95 [0.5-1.0]
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-baOR=0.86 p < .468
Italy: CI95 [0.6-1.0]

The authors divided life satisfaction into two 
groups of high and low life satisfaction for 
logistic regression, with the 75th percentile 
being the cut-off point.

OR is adjusted for:
- age
- gender


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current mobility
Subject code: M15ab

StudyGagliardi et al. (2010): study ZZ Western Europe 2000
TitleAssociations of Personal and Mobility Resources with Subjective Well-being Among Older Adults in Italy and Germany.
SourceArchives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 2010, Vol. 50, 42 -47
URLhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167494309000326
Public55+ aged, Germany and Italy, 2000
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2118

Correlate
Author's labelHealth impairments affecting mobility
Page in Source 44
Our classificationCurrent mobility, code M15ab
Operationalization
1: Yes
0: No
Observed distribution% Yes: Germany: 54% (N=1518) Italy: 46% (N=600)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-baOR=0.72 p < .0.020
Germany: CI95 [0.5-0.9]
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-baOR=0.92 p < .0.717
Italy: CI95 [0.6-1.4]

The authors divided life satisfaction into two 
groups of high and low life satisfaction for 
logistic regression, with the 75th percentile 
being the cut-off point.

OR is adjusted for:
- age
- gender


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current mobility
Subject code: M15ab

StudyGagliardi et al. (2010): study ZZ Western Europe 2000
TitleAssociations of Personal and Mobility Resources with Subjective Well-being Among Older Adults in Italy and Germany.
SourceArchives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 2010, Vol. 50, 42 -47
URLhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167494309000326
Public55+ aged, Germany and Italy, 2000
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =2118

Correlate
Author's labelPerforming physical activity
Page in Source 44
Our classificationCurrent mobility, code M15ab
Operationalization
1: None
2: Light
3: Moderate/regular
Observed distribution% None: Germany: 14% (N=1518) Italy: 14% (N=600) % Light: Germany: 52% (N=1518) Italy: 62% (N=600) % Moderate/regular: Germany: 34% (N=1518) Italy: 24% (N=600)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-baOR=1.34 p < .029
Germany: CI95 [1.0-1.7]
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-baOR=1.86 p < .002
Italy: CI95 [1.3-2.8]

The authors divided life satisfaction into two 
groups of high and low life satisfaction for 
logistic regression, with the 75th percentile 
being the cut-off point.

OR is adjusted for:
- age
- gender


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current mobility
Subject code: M15ab

StudyMollenkopf et al. (2005): study ZZ Europe 2000
TitleMobility and the Quality of Life.
SourceMollenkopf, H; et al; Eds.: "Enhanching Mobility in Later Life", IOS Press, 2005, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 279 - 288
Public55+ aged, 6 European Countries, 2000
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response45%
Respondents N =3950

Correlate
Author's labelOutdoor mobility
Page in Source 284
Our classificationCurrent mobility, code M15ab
Operationalization
Factor based on:
A: transport modes used
B: outdoor activities
C: realised mobility
Error EstimatesFactor loadings:A: +.64; B: +.70; C: +.39

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO-c-mq-*-110-aBeta=+.76 p < .001
Beta's controlled for:
- Age 
- Gender
- SES
- Vision
- Physical mobility
- Visumotoric coordination
- External control belief
- Urban vs rural
- Residential area
- Variety of social network
Set Image size:   



Correlational finding on Happiness and Current mobility
Subject code: M15ab

StudyVanDongen & De Graaf (2012): study NL 2012 /1
TitleDe Gelukkige Dokter (The happy doctor)
SourceNederlands Tijdschrift voor Geneeskunde, 2012, 1 - 15
URLhttps://www.ntvg.nl/artikelen/de-gelukkige-dokter/icmje
PublicMedical doctors and students, The Netherlands, 2012
SampleNon-probability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =401

Correlate
Author's labelcommuting
Our classificationCurrent mobility, code M15ab
Operationalization
a active walking
b active cycling
c passive public transport
d passive car

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-?-sq-n-11-aDM=
active walking             M=8.1
active cycling             M=7.7
passive public transport   M=7.4
passive car                M=7.4


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current mobility
Subject code: M15ab

StudyBoelhouwer (2002): study NL 1997
TitleSocial Indicators and Living Conditions in the Netherlands.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2002, Vol. 60, 89 - 113
DOIDOI:10.1023/A:1021200828811
Public18+ aged, general public, The Netherlands, 1997
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =3500

Correlate
Author's labelOwnership of a public transport season ticket
Page in Source 100
Our classificationCurrent mobility, code M15ab
Operationalization
Selfreport on single question:
Do you have a public transport season ticket?
1 yes, for the railways
2 yes, for bus, tram and underground
3 yes, for both categories
4 no

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-ar=+.01 ns


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current mobility
Subject code: M15ab

StudyAndersson et al. (2013a): study SE Västra Götalands län 2012 /1
TitleGreenhouse Gas Emission and Subjective Well-Being: An Analalysis of Swedish Households.
SourceEcological Economics, 2014, Vol. 102, 75 - 82
DOIDOI: 10.1016/j.ecolecon.2014.03.018
Public25-65 aged,general public, southwest Sweden, 2012
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response59.9%
Respondents N =2500

Correlate
Author's labelNon-work driving
Page in Source 79
Our classificationCurrent mobility, code M15ab
Operationalization
Kilometer per year.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO-u-sq-n-11-aBeta=+.00 ns
Beta controled for:
- education
- gender
- age
- has children


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current mobility
Subject code: M15ab

StudyAndersson et al. (2013a): study SE Västra Götalands län 2012 /1
TitleGreenhouse Gas Emission and Subjective Well-Being: An Analalysis of Swedish Households.
SourceEcological Economics, 2014, Vol. 102, 75 - 82
DOIDOI: 10.1016/j.ecolecon.2014.03.018
Public25-65 aged,general public, southwest Sweden, 2012
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response59.9%
Respondents N =2500

Correlate
Author's labelAir travel
Page in Source 79
Our classificationCurrent mobility, code M15ab
Operationalization
Flights per year.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO-u-sq-n-11-aBeta=+.02 ns
Beta controled for:
- education
- gender
- age
- has children


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current mobility
Subject code: M15ab

StudySiösteen et al. (1990): study SE 1985
TitleThe Quality of Life of Three Functional Spinal Cord Injury Subgroups in a Swedish Community.
SourceParaplegia, 1990, Vol. 28, 476 -- 488
URLhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2263404
PublicSpinal Cord Injury, Swedish, 198?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =56

Correlate
Author's labelMobility
Page in Source Table VI
Our classificationCurrent mobility, code M15ab
Operationalization
A: Private transport
 - A person's ability to drive a car and to manage 
transfers independently.
B: Mobility in the neighbourhood
 - Subjects' mobility in the neighbourhood included 
their engagement in shopping, banking etc.

Full questions were not reported

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-QOL-c-sq-ol-101-cr=+.53 p < .001
Private transport
O-QOL-c-sq-ol-101-cr=+.32 p < .05
Mobility in the neigbourhood


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to mobility
Subject code: M15ac

StudyAppleton & Song (2008): study CN 2002
TitleLife Satisfaction in Urban China: Components and Determinants.
SourceWorld Development, 2008, Vol. 36, 2325 - 2340
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.worlddev.2008.04.009
PublicAdults, general public, urban areas, China, 2002
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =6977

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with welfare provision
Page in Source 2332-2333
Our classificationAttitudes to mobility, code M15ac
Operationalization
Self-report on three questions:
How satisfied are you with:
a) economic security in old age
b) current housing conditions
c) means of transportation
Rated:
1 very dissatisfied
:
5 very satisfied
Observed distributiona) M=3.08, b) M=3.11, c) M=3.12

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-nb=+.02 p < .01
SATISFACTION WITH ECONOMIC SECURITY IN OLD AGE
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-nb=+.12 p < .01
SATISFACTION WITH CURRENT HOUSING CONDITIONS
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-nb=+.00 p < .NS
SATISFACTION WITH MEANS OF TRANSPORTATION

B's controlled for satisfaction with:
- income
- Opportunities and social mobility
- Occupation and social status
- Government policies and environment
- Family and social connections


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to mobility
Subject code: M15ac

StudyMollenkopf & Kaspar (2005): study DE 2000
TitleAgeing in Rural Areas of East and West Germany: Increasing Similarities and Remaining Differences.
SourceEuropean Journal of Aging, 2005, Vol. 2, 120 - 130
DOIdoi:10.1007/s10433-005-0029-2
Public55+ aged, general public, rural areas, East and West Germany, 2000
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response41,6%
Respondents N =762

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with public transport
Page in Source 125,127
Our classificationAttitudes to mobility, code M15ac
Operationalization
Selfreport on an 11-point scale
Single question: 
All in all, how satisfied are you with the public 
transport in your city?
Observed distributionWest Germany: M=5,3; SD=2,8; East Germany: M=6,6; SD=2,8; p<0.001

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-baBeta=-.12 ns
Beta controlled for:
- Socio-demographic: 
   - sex
   - age
   - satisfaction with finances
- Health-related:
   - activities of daily living
   - visu-motoric coordination
   - affect balance score
   - satisfaction with health
- Social network:
   - household type
   - network variety
- Housing:
   - basic household features
   - home ownership
   - satisfaction with housing
- Living area:
   - available services
   - neighbourhood features
   - satisfaction with living area
- Mobility:
   - car use as passenger
   - car use as driver
   - satisfaction with mobility
- Leisure time activities:
   - outdoor leisure activities
   - satisfaction with leisure activities

No interaction with region (East/West Germany)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to mobility
Subject code: M15ac

StudyMollenkopf & Kaspar (2005): study DE 2000
TitleAgeing in Rural Areas of East and West Germany: Increasing Similarities and Remaining Differences.
SourceEuropean Journal of Aging, 2005, Vol. 2, 120 - 130
DOIdoi:10.1007/s10433-005-0029-2
Public55+ aged, general public, rural areas, East and West Germany, 2000
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response41,6%
Respondents N =762

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with mobility
Page in Source 125,127
Our classificationAttitudes to mobility, code M15ac
Operationalization
Selfreport on 11-point scale
Single question:
All in all, how satisfied are you with the 
possibilities you have to go where you want - by feet, 
bicycle or by car?
Observed distributionWest Germany: M=7,6; SD=2,5; East Germany: M=7,7; SD=2,3; ns

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-baBeta=+.16 p < .05
Beta controlled for:
- Socio-demographic: 
   - sex
   - age
   - satisfaction with finances
- Health-related:
   - activities of daily living
   - visu-motoric coordination
   - affect balance score
   - satisfaction with health
- Social network:
   - household type
   - network variety
- Housing:
   - basic household features
   - home ownership
   - satisfaction with housing
- Living area:
   - available services
   - neighbourhood features
   - satisfaction with living area
- Mobility:
   - car use as passenger
   - car use as driver
   - satisfaction with public transport
- Leisure time activities:
   - outdoor leisure activities
   - satisfaction with leisure activities

Interaction with region stronger in East Germany


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to mobility
Subject code: M15ac

StudyLeonardi et al. (1999): study IT 1995
TitleThe Top-Down/Bottom-Up Controvercy from a Constructionist Approach: A Method for Measuring Top-Down Effects Applied to Sample of Older People.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 1999, Vol. 48, 187 - 216
DOIDOI: 10.1023/A:1006977717925
Public55+aged, Italy, followed 5 years 1995-200
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response50.5%
Respondents N =297

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with mobility
Page in Source 63, 65
Our classificationAttitudes to mobility, code M15ac
Operationalization
Self report on single question. Full text not reported
0  very unsatisfied
.
.
10 very satisfied
Observed distributionM =6,76, SD= 2,31
Remarks
Assessed at T1 (1995) and T2: (2000)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-v-4-er=+.40 p < .05
O-SLu-g-sq-v-4-erpc=+.25 p < .05
rpc controled for objective living conditions with 
which they are significantly correlated.
This partial correlation is seen to indicate a 
'top-down' effect of overall satisfaction with 
life on satisfaction with this life domain


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to mobility
Subject code: M15ac

StudyDuarte et al. (2010): study ZZ Various nation sets 2007
TitleNew Approaches in transporting Planning: Happiness and transport Economics.
SourceNetnomics, 2010, Vol. 11, 5 - 32
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11066-009-9037-2
Public18+ aged, general public, multiple nations, 2007
SampleNon-probability snowball sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1084

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with trasnport for leisure trip
Page in Source 24
Our classificationAttitudes to mobility, code M15ac
Operationalization
Self-report on single question:
How happy do you feel by using the current transport 
mode to make a leisure trip?
1: least happy
.
.
10: most happy

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-n-10-dBeta=+.04 s
Beta controlled for:
- satisfaction with
  - social life
  - family life
  - financial situation
  - work trips


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to mobility
Subject code: M15ac

StudyDuarte et al. (2010): study ZZ Various nation sets 2007
TitleNew Approaches in transporting Planning: Happiness and transport Economics.
SourceNetnomics, 2010, Vol. 11, 5 - 32
DOIDOI:10.1007/s11066-009-9037-2
Public18+ aged, general public, multiple nations, 2007
SampleNon-probability snowball sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1084

Correlate
Author's labelSatisfaction with transport for work trip
Page in Source 24
Our classificationAttitudes to mobility, code M15ac
Operationalization
Self report on single question:
How happy do you feel by using your current mode of 
transport to make a work related trip?
Rated as:
1: least happy
.
.
10: most happy

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sq-n-10-dBeta=+.11 s
Beta controlled for:
- satisfaction with
  - social life
  - financial situation
  - family life
  - leisure trips


Correlational finding on Happiness and Attitudes to mobility
Subject code: M15ac

StudyWahl et al. (2007): study ZZ Various nation sets 2000
TitleEnvironmental Aspects of Quality of life in Old Age.
SourceMollenkopf, H.;Walker, A.;Eds: '''Quality of Life and Old Age", Springer, 2007, Dordrecht, Netherlands, 101 - 122
Public55+aged, urban and rural regions in 5 EU nations 2000-2003
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-ResponseExcept for Eastern Germany rural areas 32%, urban areas 48%, rural Italy 18.6%, urban The Netherlands 65.8%
Respondents N =3950

Correlate
Author's labelImportance of being out
Page in Source 116
Our classificationAttitudes to mobility, code M15ac
Operationalization
Self report on the importance of being out rated by 11 
point scale (0=not important at all to 10=very 
important). Text is not reported.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SL?-?-sq-n-11-bBeta=+.15 p < .001
The Netherlands
O-SL?-?-sq-n-11-bBeta=+.10 p < .001
Germany
O-SL?-?-sq-n-11-bBeta=+.09 p < .05
Hungary
O-SL?-?-sq-n-11-bBeta=+.02 ns
Italy
O-SL?-?-sq-n-11-bBeta= ns
Finland

Control variables are not reported.

The publication presents only significant Beta's 
(05. Not mentioned Beta's are added to this 
excerpt by WDH-team and assumed to be 
insignificant (ns).


Appendices

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used

CodeFull Text
M-AO-c-mq-*-110-aSelf report on 21 questions:

A Taking all things together, how satisfied are you with your life these days?
10 totally satisfied
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 totally unsatisfied

B Indicate to what extend you feel this way during the past few weeks:
a nervous
b distressed
c afraid
d jittery
e irritable
f upset
g scared
h exiled
i ashamed
j guilty
k hostile
l active
m determined
n inspired
o enthusiastic
p alert
q attentive
r proud
s strong
t interested
Answer options:
1 very slightly or not at all
2 a little
3 moderately
4 quite a bit
5 extremely
Affect Balance Score (ABS): (a-k) - (l-t) Name: Watson's PANAS
M-AO-u-sq-n-11-aSelfreport on single question:

We want to know how you feel. Please indicate on the scale below.
10 means that you are doing well, 0 means that you are doing badly
10 you are doing well
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 doing badly
O-HL-?-sq-n-11-aSelfreport on single question:


"overall happiness.."(full question not reported
10 my life is very happy
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 my life is very unhappy
O-HL-u-sq-n-10-dSelfreport on single question:

How happy do you consider yourself in an overall perspective?
10 most happy
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1 least happy
O-HP-u-sq-v-5-aSelfreport on single question

To what extent do you consider yourself a happy person....?
5 very happy
4 happy
3 neither happy nor unhappy
2 not very happy
1 unhappy
O-QOL-c-sq-ol-101-cSelfreport on single question:

How would you rate your quality of life these days?

Rated on 100 mm open line scale
Anchors not reported
O-SL?-?-sq-n-11-bSelf report on single question:

.. Life satisfaction .. (full text not reported)
10 very satisfied

9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 very dissatisfied
O-SLu-g-sq-v-4-eSelfreport on single question

In general, how satisfied are you with your life?
1 very dissatisfied
2 dissatisfied
3 satisfied
4 very satisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-baSelfreport on single question;
What do you think, how satisfied are you at this moment- all in all - with your life ?' 'If for instance you are totally satisfied with your life, please mark a '10'.If you are totally unsatisfied with your life, mark a '0'.If you are not completely unsatisfied nor totally satisfied range yourself somewhere between '1' and '9"
10 completely satisfied
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 completely dissatisfied
O-SLW-u-sq-v-5-nSelfreport on single question

Considering all aspects of your life, how satisfied are you?
1 very dissatisfied
2 not satisfied
3 not so satisfied
4 satisfied
5 very satisfied


Appendix 2: Statistics used

SymbolExplanation
bREGRESSION COEFFICIENT (non-standardized) by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: unlimited

Meaning:
b > 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a higher happiness rating on average.
B < 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a lower happiness rating on average.
B = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate.
Beta STANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENT by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic.

Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric.
Range: [-1 ; +1]

Meaning:
beta > 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta < 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta = 0 « no correlation.
beta = + 1 or -1 « perfect correlation.
DMDIFFERENCE of MEANS
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Range: depending on the happiness rating scale of the author; range symmetric about zero.

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness, as measured on the author's rating scale, between the two correlate levels.
ORODDS RATIO
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness level: dichotomous
Range: nonnegative unlimited

Meaning:
OR = 1 « no association at all;
OR = 0 or infinite « at least one level of the correlate allows an error-free prediction of the happiness.
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 « no correlation ,
r = 1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
rpcPARTIAL CORRELATION COEFFICIENT
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning: a partial correlation between happiness and one of the correlates is that correlation, which remains after accounting for the contribution of the other influences, or some of them, to the total variability in the happiness scores.
Under that conditions
rpc > 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds with a higher happiness rating,
rpc < 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds with a lower happiness rating,


Appendix 3: About the World Database of Happiness

Structure of the collections

The World Database of Happiness is an archive of research findings on subjective enjoyment of life .
It brings together findings that are scattered throughout many studies and provides a basis for synthetic work.

World literature on subjective wellbeing


Selection on fit with definition of happiness

Bibliography    and     Directory    

Selection of empirical studies and within these on valid measurement: Happiness measures
Abstracting and classification of findings

How happy people are, distributional findings What goes together with happiness

Happiness in nations
Happiness in regions
Happiness in publics
Correlational findings

  Listing of comparable findings in nations  
States of nations   ,   Trends in nations


Size of the collections
12061 publications in Bibliography of happiness, of which 6298 report an empirical study that is eligible for inclusion in the findings archive.
1152 measures of happiness, mostly single survey questions varying in wording and response scale.
12311 distributional findings in the general public, of which 8552 in 173 nations (former nations and de facto nations included) and 3759 findings in 2455 regions and cities in nations.
2124 studies with findings in 160 specific publics.
15579 correlational findings observed in 2062 studies, excerpted from 1588 publications.

Appendix 4 Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness

Main Subjects Subject Description Number of Studies
A01ACTIVITY (how much one does)56
A02ACTIVITY: PATTERN (what one does)120
A03AFFECTIVE LIFE82
A04AGE686
A05AGGRESSION14
A06ANOMY33
A07APPEARANCE (good looks)24
A08ATTITUDES12
A09AUTHORITARIANISM4
B01BIRTH CONTROL0
B02BIRTH HISTORY (own birth)205
B03BODY105
C01CHILDREN12
C02CHILDREN: WANT FOR (Parental aspirations)13
C03CHILDREN: HAVING (parental status)318
C04CHILDREN: CHARACTERISTICS OF ONE'S CHILDREN37
C05CHILDREN: RELATION WITH ONE'S CHILDREN19
C06CHILDREN: REARING OF ONE'S CHILDREN (parental behavior)35
C07COMMUNAL LIVING16
C08CONCERNS46
C09CONSUMPTION119
C10COPING64
C11CREATIVENESS7
C12CRIME2
C13CULTURE (Arts and Sciences)49
D01DAILY JOYS & HASSLES7
D02DISASTER1
E01EDUCATION533
E02EMPLOYMENT 815
E03ETHNICITY173
E04EXPRESSIVE BEHAVIOR12
F01FAMILY OF ORIGIN (earlier family for adults, current for young)331
F02FAMILY OF PROCREATION106
F03FAMILY OF RELATIVES192
F04FARMING66
F05FREEDOM56
F06FRIENDSHIP240
G01GENDER640
G02GRIEF1
H01HABITS2
H02HANDICAP49
H03HAPPINESS: VIEWS ON HAPPINESS121
H04HAPPINESS: DISPERSION OF HAPPINESS19
H05HAPPINESS: CAREER227
H06HAPINNESS: EFFECT OF CONDITIONS FOR HAPPINESS1
H07HAPPINESS: CORRESPONDENCE OF DIFFERENT MEASURES346
H08HAPPINESS OF OTHERS6
H09HAPPINESS: REPUTATION OF HAPPINESS26
H10HEALTH-BEHAVIOR50
H11HELPING16
H12HOPE36
H13HOUSEHOLD: COMPOSITION255
H14HOUSEHOLD: WORK49
H15HOUSING270
I01INCOME1077
I02INSTITUTIONAL LIVING44
I03INTELLIGENCE86
I04INTERESTS17
I05INTERVIEW 87
I06INTIMACY147
L01LANGUAGE18
L02LEADERSHIP14
L03LEISURE330
L04LIFE APPRAISALS: OTHER THAN HAPPINESS463
L05LIFE CHANGE71
L06LIFE EVENTS140
L07LIFE GOALS119
L08LIFE HISTORY11
L09LIFE STYLE 40
L10LOCAL ENVIRONMENT710
L11LOTTERY13
L12LOVE-LIFE44
M01MARRIAGE: MARITAL STATUS CAREER109
M02MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS887
M03MARRIAGE: RELATIONSHIP155
M04MARRIAGE: PARTNER82
M05MEANING31
M06MEDICAL TREATMENT107
M07MENTAL HEALTH308
M08MIGRATION: TO OTHER COUNTRY98
M09MIGRATION: MOVING WITHIN COUNTRY (residential mobility)49
M10MIGRATION: MIGRANT WORK5
M11MILITARY LIFE14
M12MODERNITY5
M13MOOD340
M14MOTIVATION21
M15MOBILITY21
N01NATION: NATIONALITY70
N02NATION: ERA (temporal period)124
N03NATION: NATIONAL CHARACTER (modal personality)75
N04NATION: CONDITION IN ONE'S NATION1054
N05NATION: POSITION OF ONE'S NATION16
N06NATION: ATTITUDES TO ONES NATION209
N07NATION: LIVABILITY OF ONE'S NATION63
N08NATION: ATTITUDINAL CLIMATE17
N09NATION: REGION137
N10NUTRITION54
N11NATION: AREA2
O01OCCUPATION224
O02ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION17
P01PERSONALITY: HISTORY56
P02PERSONALITY: CHANGE11
P03PERSONALITY: CURRENT ORGANIZATION10
P04PERSONALITY: CURRENT TRAITS722
P05PERSONALITY: LATER21
P06PHYSICAL HEALTH 829
P07PLANNING11
P08POLITICAL BEHAVIOUR285
P09POPULARITY30
P10POSSESSIONS156
P11PRISON3
P12PROBLEMS30
P13PSYCHO-SOMATIC COMPLAINTS63
P14PETS4
R01RELIGION427
R02RESOURCES33
R03RETIREMENT154
R04ROLES31
S01SCHOOL208
S02SELF-IMAGE313
S03SEX-LIFE77
S04SLEEP17
S05SOCIAL MOBILITY25
S06SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: PERSONAL CONTACTS99
S07SOCIAL PARTICIPATION : VOLUNTARY ASSOCIATIONS152
S08SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: TOTAL (personal + associations)54
S09SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS191
S10SOCIAL SUPPORT: RECEIVED117
S11SOCIAL SUPPORT: PROVIDED24
S12SPORTS69
S13STIMULANTS93
S14SUICIDE10
S15SUMMED DETERMINANTS168
T01TIME 106
T02THERAPY58
T03TOLERANCE39
T05TRUST47
V01VALUES: CAREER6
V02VALUES: CURRENT PREFERENCES (own)164
V03VALUES: CLIMATE (current values in environment)13
V04VALUES: SIMILARITY (current fit with others)13
V05VALUES: LIVING UP TO18
V06VICTIM 32
W01WAR7
W02WISDOM1
W03WORK: CAREER1
W04WORK: CONDITIONS127
W05WORK: ATTITUDES412
W06WORK: PERFORMANCE (current)40
W07WORRIES57
X01UNCLASSIFIED34


Appendix 5: Related Subjects

SubjectRelated Subject(s)
M15MOBILITYL03ac03Place of leisure (indoor vs outdoor)
M15MOBILITYM08MIGRATION: TO OTHER COUNTRY
M15MOBILITYM10MIGRATION: MIGRANT WORK
M15MOBILITYP10ab02eaCar
M15MOBILITYS05SOCIAL MOBILITY
M15abCurrent mobilityA02ac10Traveling
M15abCurrent mobilityL03ac02jTraveling
M15abCurrent mobilityL10ahRemoteness
M15abCurrent mobilityN04ad02bElectricity
M15abCurrent mobilityW04ab03Commuting to work
M15acAttitudes to mobilityL10ad02gSatisfaction with local transport facilities

A report of the World Database of Happiness, Correlational Findings