Findings on Happiness and MILITARY LIFE

World Database of Happiness

Correlational Findings on Happiness and MILITARY LIFE
Subject Code: M11

© on data collection: Ruut Veenhoven, Erasmus University Rotterdam

Classification of Findings
Subject Code Description Nr of Studies
on this Subject
M11MILITARY LIFE1
M11aaMilitary career0
M11aa01Earlier in armed force1
M11aa02Change in military life0
M11aa02aRecent entering armed force0
M11aa02bRecent leaving armed force1
M11aa03Later in armed force1
M11abCurrent involvement in military life2
M11adAttitudes to military life0
M11ad01Concern about militairy0
M11ad02Satisfaction with militairy life0
M11ad03Perceived effects of change in militairy life4
M11acMilitary skill3
M11ab01Militairs in family1
 
Appendices
Appendix 1Happiness measures used 
Appendix 2Statistics used 
Appendix 3About the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 4Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness 
Appendix 5Related Subjects 

Cite as:    Veenhoven, R.: Findings on Happiness and MILITARY LIFE
World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings
Internet: http://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl/hap_cor/top_sub.php?code=M11
Erasmus University Rotterdam, 2018, Netherlands

Correlational finding on Happiness and MILITARY LIFE
Subject code: M11

StudyStutzer & Frey (2006): study XZ Germany West 1984
TitleDoes Marriage Make People Happy, or do Happy People Get Married.
SourceThe Journal of Socio-Economics, 2006, Vol. 35, 326 - 347
DOIDOI:10.1016/j.socec.2005.11.043
Public15+ aged, general public, West Germany, 1984-2000
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =15268

Correlate
Author's labelEmployment
Page in Source 25
Our classificationMILITARY LIFE, code M11
Operationalization
0 employed(reference group)
1 a self-employed
  b unemployed
  c some work
  d non-working
  e maternity leave
  f military service
  g in education
  h retired

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.26 p < .01
a: Self-employed
When trait-happiness is also controled B=-.10
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-1.0 p < .01
b: Unemployed
When trait-happiness is also controled B=-.67
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.24 p < .01
c: Some work
When trait-happiness is also controled B=-.12
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.12 p < .01
d: Non-working
When trait-happiness is also controled B=-.08
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=+.14 p < .01
e: Maternity leave 
When trait-happiness is also controled B=-.03
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.36 p < .01
f: Military service
When trait-happiness is also controled B=-.46
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.00 ns
g: In education
When trait-happiness is also controled B=-.00
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-db=-.09 p < .01
h: Retired
When trait-happiness is also controled B=-.01

B's controled for:
- age
- education
- household income
- position in the household
- country of origin
- time (dummy for wave of panel)
and additionally for:
- trait-happiness (average over all 14 waves)


Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier in armed force
Subject code: M11aa01

StudyMyers & Liu (2013): study US 2012
TitleIn U.S.women Veterans rate Lives better than Men.
SourceThe Gallup Organization, april 2013
URLhttp://www.gallup.com/poll/162035/women-veterans-rate-lives-better-men.aspx
PublicVeterans, United States, 2012
SampleProbability multistage stratified area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =48690

Correlate
Author's labelVeterans
Page in Source 2
Our classificationEarlier in armed force, code M11aa01
Operationalization
1 veterans
0 non veteran general population
Remarks
Veterans selected from general population survey. 
Either retired from military service or honorably 
discharged from the US military.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cDM=-
        veteran   non veteran difference
Male    M = 6.8   M = 6.8      0
Female  M = 6.9   M = 7.1     -0.2
difference -0.1      -0.3


Correlational finding on Happiness and Recent leaving armed force
Subject code: M11aa02b

StudyBiersner et al. (1976): study US 1971
TitleMood Scales as Predictors of Discharge and Sick Call Visits during Basic Military Training.
SourceMilitary Medecine, 1976, Vol. 141, 859 - 861
PublicNavy recruits, USA, 1971
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1220

Correlate
Author's labelDischarge after basic training
Page in Source 860
Our classificationRecent leaving armed force, code M11aa02b
Operationalization
Registery data 
1 dismissed
0 stayed
Observed distribution1: 6%
Remarks
Reasons for dismissal: disciplinary action, poor 
academic performance, problems with mental or physical 
health.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ASA-m-mq-v-3-ar=-.07 ns
Sample A, happiness at first assesment
A-ASA-m-mq-v-3-ar=-.11 p < .05
Sample A, happiness at second assesment
A-ASA-m-mq-v-3-aBeta= ns
A-ASA-m-mq-v-3-ar=-.18 p < .01
Sample B, happiness at first assesment
A-ASA-m-mq-v-3-ar=-.16 p < .01
Sample B, happiness at second assesment
A-ASA-m-mq-v-3-aBeta= ns
Beta's controled for
- activity
- anger
- depression
- fear
A-ASA-m-mq-v-3-a
The total sample was split in subsamples A 
(validation) and B (crossvalidation) equaled for 
discharge rates and sick call.

First assessment at first day of training, second 
assessment 3 days later.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Later in armed force
Subject code: M11aa03

StudyBachman et al. (1978): study US 1966
TitleYouth in Transition, Vol. VI. Adolescence to Adulthood. Change and Stability in the Lives of Young Men.
SourceInstitute for Social Research, 1978, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA
PublicPublic highschool boys followed 8 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-74
Sample
Non-Response2.8% at T1, 17.2% at T2, 21.0% at T3, 28.9% at T4, 28.5% at T5
Respondents N =1628

Correlate
Author's label(Later) military service
Our classificationLater in armed force, code M11aa03
Operationalization
Single direct question at T5: are you now or have you 
ever been a member of the Armed Forces? 0 = no; 1 = yes 

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-atau= ns
T1 happiness:        tau = -.07  (ns)
T2 happiness:        tau = -.04  (ns)
T3 happiness:        tau = -.00  (ns)
T4 happiness:        tau = +.00  (ns)
T1:1966, T2:1968, T3:1969, T4:1970, T5:1974


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current involvement in military life
Subject code: M11ab

StudyBartolini et al. (2010): study DE 1988
TitlePredicting the Trend of Well-Being in Germany: How much Do Comparisons, Adaptation and Sociability Matter.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2013, 114 (3) 169-191
URLhttp://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11205-012-0142-5#page-1
Public14+ aged, Germany, 1988 - 2007
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response
Respondents N =59527

Correlate
Author's labelMilitary/civil service
Page in Source 20, 26, 34, 35
Our classificationCurrent involvement in military life, code M11ab
Operationalization
1 being in military of civil service
0 other
Observed distributionN=338757 M=0.00 sd=0.05

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLu-g-sq-n-11-ab=-.27 p < .05
West Germany 1988-2007, N=80337
O-SLu-g-sq-n-11-ab=-.24 p < .10
Germany 1994-2007, N=59527

Beta’s controlled for:
- Marital status
- Age
- Household size
- Number of children
- Years of education
- Living with parents when 16
- Log of monthly household income
- Log of reference income
- Log of monthly household income 3years before
- Attending events
- Social participation
- Unemployed
- Student
- Non-worker
- Retired

in last case additionally controlled for: Living 
in West Germany


Correlational finding on Happiness and Current involvement in military life
Subject code: M11ab

StudyBowen & Orthner (1986): study US 1981
TitleSingle Parents in the U.S. Airforce.
SourceFamily Relations, 1986, Vol. 35, 45 - 52
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/584281
PublicSingle parents, Airforce, USA, 1981
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response20%
Respondents N =157

Correlate
Author's labelmilitary rank
Page in Source 47
Our classificationCurrent involvement in military life, code M11ab
Operationalization
1 enlisted (soldier)
2 officer
Observed distributionenlisted: 80% officers: 20%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SL?-?-sq-v-5-cD%=+
% very satisfied:
1 enlisted 9
2 officers 30


Correlational finding on Happiness and Militairs in family
Subject code: M11ab01

StudyFararouei et al. (2013): study IR 2008
TitleHappiness and Health Behaviour in Iranian adolescent Girls.
SourceJournal of Adolescence, 2013, Vol. 36, 1187-1192
Public11-19 aged highschool girls, Iran, 200?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =9867

Correlate
Author's labelFather's job
Page in Source 1190
Our classificationMilitairs in family, code M11ab01
Operationalization
Participants were asked bout the father's job
a: Unemployed (reference)
b: Private
c: Army
d: Technology
e: Clerk
f: Teacher
g: Retired
Observed distributionN = a: 220, b: 4282, c: 222, d: 53, e: 1453, f: 673, g: 551

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-n-11-bDM=+/- p < .001
Job of father  Happiness of child  
               Mean  SD  
- Unemployed   6,37  3,52
- Private      6,55  3,32
- Technology   6,74  3,21  
- Army         6,97  3,31
- Clerk        7,20  3,15
- Teacher      7,52  3,08
- Retired      7,02  3.02
O-HL-c-sq-n-11-bAoV=+/- p < .001
O-HL-c-sq-n-11-bb=+.09 p < .75
Private        (vs unemployed)
O-HL-c-sq-n-11-bb=+.12 p < .76
Army           (vs unemployed)
O-HL-c-sq-n-11-bb=+.27 p < .64
Technology     (vs unemployed)
O-HL-c-sq-n-11-bb=+37 p < .24
Clerk          (vs umemployed)
O-HL-c-sq-n-11-bb=+31 p < .38
Teaching       (vs unemployed)
O-HL-c-sq-n-11-bb=+12 p < .73
Retired        (vs unemployed)

b controled for:
- age
- orher physical chartacteristics
  - height
  - weight
  - ill at the moment
- family characteristics
  - mothers job and education
  - number of sibblings
- school situation
  - grade average
- health behavior
  - physical activity
  - daily vegetable and fruit consumption
  - being exp[osed to smoking
- urban/rural residency


Correlational finding on Happiness and Military skill
Subject code: M11ac

StudyBiersner et al. (1976): study US 1971
TitleMood Scales as Predictors of Discharge and Sick Call Visits during Basic Military Training.
SourceMilitary Medecine, 1976, Vol. 141, 859 - 861
PublicNavy recruits, USA, 1971
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1220

Correlate
Author's labelDischarge after basic training
Page in Source 860
Our classificationMilitary skill, code M11ac
Operationalization
Registery data 
1 dismissed
0 stayed
Observed distribution1: 6%
Remarks
Reasons for dismissal: disciplinary action, poor 
academic performance, problems with mental or physical 
health.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ASA-m-mq-v-3-ar=-.07 ns
Sample A, happiness at first assesment
A-ASA-m-mq-v-3-ar=-.11 p < .05
Sample A, happiness at second assesment
A-ASA-m-mq-v-3-aBeta= ns
A-ASA-m-mq-v-3-ar=-.18 p < .01
Sample B, happiness at first assesment
A-ASA-m-mq-v-3-ar=-.16 p < .01
Sample B, happiness at second assesment
A-ASA-m-mq-v-3-aBeta= ns
Beta's controled for
- activity
- anger
- depression
- fear
A-ASA-m-mq-v-3-a
The total sample was split in subsamples A 
(validation) and B (crossvalidation) equaled for 
discharge rates and sick call.

First assessment at first day of training, second 
assessment 3 days later.


Correlational finding on Happiness and Military skill
Subject code: M11ac

StudyRahe et al. (1976): study US 1971
TitleSerum Uric Acids, Cholesterol and Psychological Moods throughout Stressfull Naval Training.
SourceNaval Health Research Center, Report nr. 76-18, 1976, San Diego, California, USA
PublicNavy recruits, followed 4 weeks, USA, 197?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =117

Correlate
Author's labelSucces in military training
Page in Source 883, 884, 886
Our classificationMilitary skill, code M11ac
Operationalization
51 volunteers had completed 5 weeks of basic recruit 
training and spent next 4 weeks in special 
pre-Underwater Demolition Team training program; on the 
basis of test results at the end of week 4 of the 
training men were divided into pass and fail groups. 66 
volunteers had also completed 5 weeks of basic recruit 
training and spent next 4 weeks in the Recruit Training 
Center choir program (control group).

Groups:
a. Pass
b. Fail
c. Control
Observed distributionN= a:27, b:24, c:66
Remarks
Underwater demolition team (UDT) training is a 4 month 
program with attrition rate of trainees between 30% and 
70%. A pre-UDT program was designed to select and 
pretrain volunteer naval recruits during their last 4 
weeks of a 9 week basic recruit training program.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ASA-m-mqr-v-3-aDM=-
a: M = 15,1
b: M = 13,2
c: M = 12,4


Correlational finding on Happiness and Military skill
Subject code: M11ac

StudyRyman et al. (1974): study US 1970
TitleReliabilities and Validities of the Mood Questionnaire.
SourcePsychological Reports, 1974, Vol. 35, 479 - 484
PublicNavy recruits, USA, 1971
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =1140

Correlate
Author's labelAquanaut performance
Page in Source 481
Our classificationMilitary skill, code M11ac
Operationalization

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ASA-m-mq-v-3-ar=-.74 p < .01
Negative correlation!


Correlational finding on Happiness and Perceived effects of change in militairy life
Subject code: M11ad03

StudyGarber (1971): study US California 1970
TitleRetired Soldiers in Second Careers: Self-Assessed Change, Reference Group Salience, and Psychological Well-Being.
SourceUnpublished PhD Dissertation, University of Southern California, 1971, USA
PublicMiddle-aged, presently employed army retirees, California, USA, 1970
Sample
Non-Response63% of which 21% no return of questionnaire, 13% incomplete and 29% refusal
Respondents N =362

Correlate
Author's labelSelf-perceived amount of change in occupational role
Our classificationPerceived effects of change in militairy life, code M11ad03
Operationalization
5-item index of closed questions on amount of change in 
present occupation, compared with former military 
occupation, rated on 4-point scales ranging from 'the 
same' to 'very different'.
Items used: actual work performed, knowledge and skill 
used, amount of time spent working, type of 
organization, kind of people one works with.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aG=-.15
Positive Affects: G= -.17
Negative Affects: G= +.12

Increased occupational prestige:
-affect balance : G= -.29
-positive affect: G= -.25
-negative affect: G= +.20

Same occupational prestige:
-affect balance : G= +.17
-positive affect: G= +.05
-negative affect: G= -.12

Decreased occupational prestige:
-affect balance : G= -.19
-positive affect: G= -.17
-negative affect: G= +.19


Correlational finding on Happiness and Perceived effects of change in militairy life
Subject code: M11ad03

StudyGarber (1971): study US California 1970
TitleRetired Soldiers in Second Careers: Self-Assessed Change, Reference Group Salience, and Psychological Well-Being.
SourceUnpublished PhD Dissertation, University of Southern California, 1971, USA
PublicMiddle-aged, presently employed army retirees, California, USA, 1970
Sample
Non-Response63% of which 21% no return of questionnaire, 13% incomplete and 29% refusal
Respondents N =362

Correlate
Author's labelCivilian reference group salience aftermilitary retirement
Page in Source 196
Our classificationPerceived effects of change in militairy life, code M11ad03
Operationalization
8-item index of statements indicating orientation 
towards and identification with civilian life and 
current civilian career.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aG=+
Positive Affects only: G= +.28


Correlational finding on Happiness and Perceived effects of change in militairy life
Subject code: M11ad03

StudyGarber (1971): study US California 1970
TitleRetired Soldiers in Second Careers: Self-Assessed Change, Reference Group Salience, and Psychological Well-Being.
SourceUnpublished PhD Dissertation, University of Southern California, 1971, USA
PublicMiddle-aged, presently employed army retirees, California, USA, 1970
Sample
Non-Response63% of which 21% no return of questionnaire, 13% incomplete and 29% refusal
Respondents N =362

Correlate
Author's labelMilitary reference group salience aftermilitary retirement
Page in Source 208
Our classificationPerceived effects of change in militairy life, code M11ad03
Operationalization
8-item index of statements indicating orientation 
towards and identification with the army and former 
military career.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aG=+
Positive Affects only: G= +.10


Correlational finding on Happiness and Perceived effects of change in militairy life
Subject code: M11ad03

StudyGarber (1971): study US California 1970
TitleRetired Soldiers in Second Careers: Self-Assessed Change, Reference Group Salience, and Psychological Well-Being.
SourceUnpublished PhD Dissertation, University of Southern California, 1971, USA
PublicMiddle-aged, presently employed army retirees, California, USA, 1970
Sample
Non-Response63% of which 21% no return of questionnaire, 13% incomplete and 29% refusal
Respondents N =362

Correlate
Author's labelIncrease in occupat-ional prestige aftermilitary retirement
Page in Source 181
Our classificationPerceived effects of change in militairy life, code M11ad03
Operationalization
3-item index of closed question on present job in 
comparison with former military job, with respect to: 
its general importance, level of skill and knowledge 
required, authority over other people.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aG=+.22
Positive Affects: G= +.30
Negative Affects: G= -.01


Appendices

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used

CodeFull Text
A-ASA-m-mq-v-3-aSelfreport on 7 questions:

Below is a list of words describing moods and feelings. Indicate how each of these words applies to how you feel now.
A Contented
B Calm
C Happy
D Pleased
E Satisfied
F Cheerful
G Good

Rating options (same for all items):
1 not at all
2 somewhat or slightly
3 mostly or generally

Name: Happiness subscale of Ryman et al (1974) Mood Questionnaire (MQ)
A-ASA-m-mqr-v-3-aSelfreport on 7 questions, repeated 15 times during 2 month (experience sampling)

Below is a list of words describing moods and feelings. Indicate how each of these words applies to how you feel now.
A Contented
B Calm
C Happy
D Pleased
E Satisfied
F Cheerful
G Good

Rating options (same for all items):
1 not at all
2 somewhat or slightly
3 mostly or generally


Summation: average over 2 months.

Name: Happiness subscale of Ryman et al (1974) Mood Questionnaire (MQ)
A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-aSelfreport on 10 questions:

During the past few weeks, did you ever feel ....? (yes/no)
A Particularly exited or interested in something?
B So restless that you couldn't sit long in a chair?
C Proud because someone complimented you on something
you had done?
D Very lonely or remote from other people?
E Pleased about having accomplished something?
F Bored?
G On top of the world?
H Depressed or very unhappy?
I That things were going your way?
J Upset because someone criticized you?

Answer options and scoring:
yes = 1
no = 0
Summation:
-Positive Affect Score (PAS): A+C+E+G+I
-Negative Affect Score (NAS): B+D+F+H+J
-Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS
Possible range: -5 to +5

Name: Bradburn's 'Affect Balance Scale' (standard version)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-cSelfreport on single question:

Here is ladder representing the 'ladder of life'. Let's suppose the top of the ladder represents the best possible life for you; and the bottom, the worst possible life for you. On which step of the ladder do you feel you personally stand at the present time?
10 best possible
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 worst possible life

This question was followed (not preceded) by items on life 5 years ago and 5 years from now.
O-HL-c-sq-n-11-bSelfreport on single question:

All in all, how happy are you with your life these days?
0 extremely unhappy
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 extremely happy
- cannot choose
- skipped
O-HP-g-mq-v-5-aSelfreport on 6 questions:

" Describe the kind of person you are. Please read each sentence, then mark how often it is true for you"
1 I feel like smiling
2 I generally feel in good spirits
3 I feel happy
4 I am very satisfied with life
5 I find a good deal of happiness in life
6 I feel sad

Response options:
5 almost always true
4 often true
3 sometimes true
2 seldom true
1 never true

Summation: average
Possible range: 1 to 5
O-SL?-?-sq-v-5-cSelfreport on single question:

".....satisfaction with life in general....."
( Full question not reported )
5 very satisfied
4 satisfied
3 mixed feelings
2 dissatisfied
1 very dissatisfied
O-SLu-g-sq-n-11-aSelfreport on single question:

How satisfied are you with your life in general? Indicate your satisfaction by giving a number between 0 and 10, where 0 means 'completely dissatisfied' and 10 'completely satisfied'. So, the more satisfied you are the higher the number.
0 completely unsatisfied
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 completely satisfied
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-dSelfreport on single question:

Taking all things together, how satisfied are you with your life these days? Please answer with the help of this scale. For instance, when you are totally satisfied with your life, please tick '10'. When you are totally unsatisfied with your life, please tick '0'. You may use all values in between to indicate that you are neither totally satisfied nor totally unsatisfied."
10 totally satisfied
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 totally unsatisfied


Appendix 2: Statistics used

SymbolExplanation
AoVANALYSIS of VARIANCE (ANOVA)
Type: statistical procedure
Measurement level: Correlate(s): nominal, Happiness: metric.
In an ANOVA, the total happiness variability, expressed as the sum of squares, is split into two or more parts, each of which is assigned to a source of variability. At least one of those sources is the variability of the correlate, in case there is only one, and always one other is the residual variability, which includes all unspecified influences on the happiness variable. Each sum of squares has its own number of degrees of freedom (df), which sum up to Ne -1 for the total variability. If a sum of squares (SS) is divided by its own number of df, a mean square (MS) is obtained. The ratio of two correctly selected mean squares has an F-distribution under the hypothesis that the corresponding association has a zero-value.

NOTE: A significantly high F-value only indicates that, in case of a single correlate, the largest of the c mean values is systematically larger than the smallest one. Conclusions about the other pairs of means require the application of a Multiple Comparisons Procedure (see e.g. BONFERRONI's MULTIPLE COMPARISON TEST, DUNCAN's MULTIPLE RANGE TEST or STUDENT-NEWMAN-KEULS)
bREGRESSION COEFFICIENT (non-standardized) by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: unlimited

Meaning:
b > 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a higher happiness rating on average.
B < 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a lower happiness rating on average.
B = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate.
Beta STANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENT by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic.

Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric.
Range: [-1 ; +1]

Meaning:
beta > 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta < 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta = 0 « no correlation.
beta = + 1 or -1 « perfect correlation.
D%DIFFERENCE in PERCENTAGES
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate level: dichotomous, but nominal or ordinal theoretically possible as well. Happiness level: dichotomous
Range: [-100; +100]

Meaning: the difference of the percentages happy people at two correlate levels.
DMDIFFERENCE of MEANS
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Range: depending on the happiness rating scale of the author; range symmetric about zero.

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness, as measured on the author's rating scale, between the two correlate levels.
GGOODMAN & Kruskal's GAMMA
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: ordinal, Happinessl: ordinal
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
G = 0 « no rank correlation
G = +1 « strongest possible rank correlation, where high correlate values correspond to high happiness ratings.
G = -1 « strongest possible rank correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness ratings.
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 « no correlation ,
r = 1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
tauGOODMAN & Kruskal's TAU
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: nominal, Happiness: ordinal
Range: [0; +1]

Meaning:
tau = 0 « knowledge of the correlate value does not improve the prediction quality of the happiness rating.
tau = 1 « knowledge of the correlate value enables a perfect (error-free) prediction of the happiness rating.


Appendix 3: About the World Database of Happiness

Structure of the collections

The World Database of Happiness is an archive of research findings on subjective enjoyment of life .
It brings together findings that are scattered throughout many studies and provides a basis for synthetic work.

World literature on subjective wellbeing


Selection on fit with definition of happiness

Bibliography    and     Directory    

Selection of empirical studies and within these on valid measurement: Happiness measures
Abstracting and classification of findings

How happy people are, distributional findings What goes together with happiness

Happiness in nations
Happiness in regions
Happiness in publics
Correlational findings

  Listing of comparable findings in nations  
States of nations   ,   Trends in nations


Size of the collections
12061 publications in Bibliography of happiness, of which 6298 report an empirical study that is eligible for inclusion in the findings archive.
1152 measures of happiness, mostly single survey questions varying in wording and response scale.
12311 distributional findings in the general public, of which 8552 in 173 nations (former nations and de facto nations included) and 3759 findings in 2455 regions and cities in nations.
2124 studies with findings in 160 specific publics.
15579 correlational findings observed in 2062 studies, excerpted from 1588 publications.

Appendix 4 Further Findings in the World Database of Happiness

Main Subjects Subject Description Number of Studies
A01ACTIVITY (how much one does)56
A02ACTIVITY: PATTERN (what one does)120
A03AFFECTIVE LIFE82
A04AGE686
A05AGGRESSION14
A06ANOMY33
A07APPEARANCE (good looks)24
A08ATTITUDES12
A09AUTHORITARIANISM4
B01BIRTH CONTROL0
B02BIRTH HISTORY (own birth)205
B03BODY105
C01CHILDREN12
C02CHILDREN: WANT FOR (Parental aspirations)13
C03CHILDREN: HAVING (parental status)318
C04CHILDREN: CHARACTERISTICS OF ONE'S CHILDREN37
C05CHILDREN: RELATION WITH ONE'S CHILDREN19
C06CHILDREN: REARING OF ONE'S CHILDREN (parental behavior)35
C07COMMUNAL LIVING16
C08CONCERNS46
C09CONSUMPTION119
C10COPING64
C11CREATIVENESS7
C12CRIME2
C13CULTURE (Arts and Sciences)49
D01DAILY JOYS & HASSLES7
D02DISASTER1
E01EDUCATION533
E02EMPLOYMENT 815
E03ETHNICITY173
E04EXPRESSIVE BEHAVIOR12
F01FAMILY OF ORIGIN (earlier family for adults, current for young)331
F02FAMILY OF PROCREATION106
F03FAMILY OF RELATIVES192
F04FARMING66
F05FREEDOM56
F06FRIENDSHIP240
G01GENDER640
G02GRIEF1
H01HABITS2
H02HANDICAP49
H03HAPPINESS: VIEWS ON HAPPINESS121
H04HAPPINESS: DISPERSION OF HAPPINESS19
H05HAPPINESS: CAREER227
H06HAPINNESS: EFFECT OF CONDITIONS FOR HAPPINESS1
H07HAPPINESS: CORRESPONDENCE OF DIFFERENT MEASURES346
H08HAPPINESS OF OTHERS6
H09HAPPINESS: REPUTATION OF HAPPINESS26
H10HEALTH-BEHAVIOR50
H11HELPING16
H12HOPE36
H13HOUSEHOLD: COMPOSITION255
H14HOUSEHOLD: WORK49
H15HOUSING270
I01INCOME1077
I02INSTITUTIONAL LIVING44
I03INTELLIGENCE86
I04INTERESTS17
I05INTERVIEW 87
I06INTIMACY147
L01LANGUAGE18
L02LEADERSHIP14
L03LEISURE330
L04LIFE APPRAISALS: OTHER THAN HAPPINESS463
L05LIFE CHANGE71
L06LIFE EVENTS140
L07LIFE GOALS119
L08LIFE HISTORY11
L09LIFE STYLE 40
L10LOCAL ENVIRONMENT710
L11LOTTERY13
L12LOVE-LIFE44
M01MARRIAGE: MARITAL STATUS CAREER109
M02MARRIAGE: CURRENT MARITAL STATUS887
M03MARRIAGE: RELATIONSHIP155
M04MARRIAGE: PARTNER82
M05MEANING31
M06MEDICAL TREATMENT107
M07MENTAL HEALTH308
M08MIGRATION: TO OTHER COUNTRY98
M09MIGRATION: MOVING WITHIN COUNTRY (residential mobility)49
M10MIGRATION: MIGRANT WORK5
M11MILITARY LIFE14
M12MODERNITY5
M13MOOD340
M14MOTIVATION21
M15MOBILITY21
N01NATION: NATIONALITY70
N02NATION: ERA (temporal period)124
N03NATION: NATIONAL CHARACTER (modal personality)75
N04NATION: CONDITION IN ONE'S NATION1054
N05NATION: POSITION OF ONE'S NATION16
N06NATION: ATTITUDES TO ONES NATION209
N07NATION: LIVABILITY OF ONE'S NATION63
N08NATION: ATTITUDINAL CLIMATE17
N09NATION: REGION137
N10NUTRITION54
N11NATION: AREA2
O01OCCUPATION224
O02ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION17
P01PERSONALITY: HISTORY56
P02PERSONALITY: CHANGE11
P03PERSONALITY: CURRENT ORGANIZATION10
P04PERSONALITY: CURRENT TRAITS722
P05PERSONALITY: LATER21
P06PHYSICAL HEALTH 829
P07PLANNING11
P08POLITICAL BEHAVIOUR285
P09POPULARITY30
P10POSSESSIONS156
P11PRISON3
P12PROBLEMS30
P13PSYCHO-SOMATIC COMPLAINTS63
P14PETS4
R01RELIGION427
R02RESOURCES33
R03RETIREMENT154
R04ROLES31
S01SCHOOL208
S02SELF-IMAGE313
S03SEX-LIFE77
S04SLEEP17
S05SOCIAL MOBILITY25
S06SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: PERSONAL CONTACTS99
S07SOCIAL PARTICIPATION : VOLUNTARY ASSOCIATIONS152
S08SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: TOTAL (personal + associations)54
S09SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS191
S10SOCIAL SUPPORT: RECEIVED117
S11SOCIAL SUPPORT: PROVIDED24
S12SPORTS69
S13STIMULANTS93
S14SUICIDE10
S15SUMMED DETERMINANTS168
T01TIME 106
T02THERAPY58
T03TOLERANCE39
T05TRUST47
V01VALUES: CAREER6
V02VALUES: CURRENT PREFERENCES (own)164
V03VALUES: CLIMATE (current values in environment)13
V04VALUES: SIMILARITY (current fit with others)13
V05VALUES: LIVING UP TO18
V06VICTIM 32
W01WAR7
W02WISDOM1
W03WORK: CAREER1
W04WORK: CONDITIONS127
W05WORK: ATTITUDES412
W06WORK: PERFORMANCE (current)40
W07WORRIES57
X01UNCLASSIFIED34


Appendix 5: Related Subjects

SubjectRelated Subject(s)
M11MILITARY LIFEW01WAR
M11aaMilitary careerO01aaOccupational career
M11aa02Change in military lifeM11ad03Perceived effects of change in militairy life
M11aa02bRecent leaving armed forceR03RETIREMENT
M11abCurrent involvement in military lifeO01ab02Kind of occupation (profession)
M11ab01Militairs in familyF01afCharacteristics of family-members (earlier for adults)
M11adAttitudes to military lifeO01adAttitudes to one's occupation

A report of the World Database of Happiness, Correlational Findings